blast from the past

blast from the past
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  Blast From The Past:
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 2001:
Denzel Washington
    Denzel Washington an American actor and filmmaker. He has received two Golden Globe awards, a Tony Award, and two Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actor for the historical drama war film Glory (1989) and Best Actor for his role as a corrupt cop in the crime thriller Training Day(2001).

    Washington has received much critical acclaim for his film work since the 1990s, including his portrayals of real-life figures such as South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko in Cry Freedom (1987), Muslim minister and human rights activist Malcolm X in Malcolm X (1992), boxer Rubin "Hurricane" Carter in The Hurricane (1999), football coach Herman Boone in Remember the Titans (2000), poet and educator Melvin B. Tolson in The Great Debaters (2007), and drug kingpin Frank Lucas in American Gangster (2007).

    He has been a featured actor in the films produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and has been a frequent collaborator of directors Spike Lee and the late Tony Scott.

    What makes an excellent actor? It's plain and simple, a good actor is an artist that convinces you to believe him, and Mr. Denzel Washington without a doubt has that ability. I'm not just talking empty words here; this man can keep you on the edge of your seat which is amazing. There are only a handful of others who can do that.

    We honor this great individual with the 2001 Hamite Award for bringing so much joy and pleasure into our households. Where do we begin with naming the accomplishments of this wonderful and talented human being? He has kept us magically entertained for so long we expect great movies and take him for granted.

    Of course in our eyes, Denzel should have won an Academy Award for many more movies that he already has. He challenges us all to be the best we can be. Denzel is indeed in an elite group of actors who grabs our attention, and the beautiful part is that it's not over and he is still going strong Despite what Sony Entertainment thinks.

Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
photo #103-yr-2001





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african american first

 For the year 2001:
  • Colin Powell was the first African-American Secretary of State

  • Wilton Daniel Gregory was the first African-American president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops

  • Rev. William G. Sinkford was the first African-American president of the Unitarian Universalist Association

  • Ruth J. Simmons was the first African-American president of an Ivy League university

  • Beyoncé Knowles was the first African-American woman to win the ASCAP Pop Music Songwriter of the Year award

  • Condoleezza Rice was the first African-American woman to be appointed National Security Advisor

  • Robert L. Johnson was the first African-American billionaire

  • Sheila Johnson was the first African-American female billionaire



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2001

One word sums up how we feel in the year 2001

'VULNERABLE'

America the Beautiful viciously attacked
We've never experienced this feeling before

and I must say, we don't like it!

september 11 terrorist attacks



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famous african american quotes
Famous African American Quotes

    Denzel Washington
    "I'm very proud to be black, but black is not all I am. That's my cultural historical background, my genetic makeup, but it's not all of who I am nor is it the basis from which I answer every question."


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women in sports

Barry Bonds
Barry Bonds
photo #101-yr-1994

     Sports in 2001
  • February 12, 2001 - Golfer Tiger Woods and track & field star Marion Jones win the 9th ESPY Award.

  • July 8, 2001 - Venus Williams defeats Justine Henin in the 108th Wimbledon Women's Tennis.

  • September 9, 2001 - Venus Williams defeats her sister Serena Williams in the 121st Women's U.S. Open.

  • October 5, 2001 - Baseball's Barry Bonds connects to hit his 71st home run, breaking Mark McGwire's record of 70.



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WAR ON BLACKS, OR ALSO KNOWN AS WAR ON DRUGS

Mass Incarceration


law and order
Convicts Leased to Harvest Timber, around 1915, Florida
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Convicts_Leased_to_Harvest_Timber.png
(public domain image)


    The more things change, the more they stay the same


Shortly after slavery, blacks were thrown into prison for petty and minor offenses which resulted in long sentences. It was big business for the penitentiary because they would hire these convicts out for various jobs and keep blacks off the streets at the same time. They killed two birds with one stone.


It was a form of bondage that did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.


This form of slavery was abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt December 12, 1941.


Is the criminal justise system much different today?


President Richard Nixon started the modern day Law and Order campaign of the War on Drugs. President Ronald Reagan would continue with the program in his administration and later President Bill Clinton during his term created tough mandatory sentencing that unfairly affected blacks.

Crack cocaine was associated with poor blacks because it was a cheap drug and in contrast with powder cocaine which was considered a white man's drug because it was more expensive. Neither drug was more deadly than the other but crack was demonized because it was associated with black people.

While a person found with five grams of crack cocaine faced a five-year mandatory minimum prison sentence, a person holding powder cocaine could receive the same sentence only if he or she held five hundred grams. Similarly, those carrying ten grams of crack cocaine faced a ten-year mandatory sentence, while possession of one thousand grams of powder cocaine was required for the same sentence to be imposed.

Don't get it wrong, these were very well ORGANIZED methods from anti-Americans in control of our country to hold blacks down and is very well documented. It seems these anti-Americans are always reinventing themselves in ways of oppressing black citizens. Perhaps they should show some love for a change instead of acting on their imagined fear.


Check these statistics out

One of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime. While black defendants account for roughly 80% of those arrested for crack-related offenses, public health data has found that two-thirds of crack cocaine users are white or Hispanic. The leading cause of incarceration of an African American male is a non-violent drug offense. Most black men in prisons are not monsters but just got caught up in the system for a non-violent mistake they may have made.

These stats are for the years 1970 - 2010



1 in every 106 White males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 36 Hispanic males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 15 Black males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order


    We have to help our own black boys because nobody else cares. Wouldn't it be nice if today's blacks possessed the same gumption our African American ancestors had by taking control of our own destiny as a race of people? It seems ever since the end of slavery we are constantly pointing out to the white man how unfair and unjust he has treated us. Don't you think he knows that? What do we expect them to do, start crying and say I'm sorry and start treating us like fellow Americans by sharing freely? Don't hold your breath.


    At this point in history, it's clear we must begin to work on ourselves more than anything else. We've probably gone just about as far as we can go with the protesting/marching strategy which was an excellent choice over the decades, but now it's time for action on our part. MLK would have likely said the same thing.


    A very unpopular message for many blacks who live with the self-pity attitude but the only avenue available for American success. Can you imagine how much it would lift our race if every single black boy possessed a college degree? It's a dream that could become a reality if we really believed it.


    Education plays the major role in American success for blacks and any group of blacks in a position of authority such as sports figures, entertainers, singers, etc that teaches the opposite by their examples we should run away from them as fast as possible. Sadly, these groups are the ones that many blacks look up to for guidance instead of our black educators.


    When one of us climbs the very difficult and racist ladder of success in the American power structure by using our God-given brain power we will not forget about those we left behind, but instead will help other blacks do the same by extending a hand until we find ourselves in a position of directing instead of always asking and begging.


    Our ancestors knew we could do it and we have to believe it too. We are from some of the strongest and finest stock that is known to mankind and should set the example for all dark skinned people over the entire earth simply because we are in a position to do so and live in the greatest country in the world. Our story is one of the greatest ever told. We are AmazingBlacks.



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america' last chance
america' last chance


Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All

It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.


But within time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these different classes to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.


But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.


Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?


Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and worldly intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.


Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.


So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.


But in time things would change and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.


Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.


Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.


But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.


america' last chance


Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.


Is America at the crossroad?

Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.


Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.


america' last chance


Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and completely fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.


america' last chance






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washington dc

 President  George W. Bush
President George W. Bush
photo #107-yr-2000

 Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
photo #107-yr-2000

     Political Scene in 2001
  • 2001 - George W. Bush served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was elected president in 2000 after a close and controversial election, becoming the fourth president to be elected while receiving fewer popular votes nationwide than his opponent. incumbent Vice President Al Gore was on the losing end.

  • 2001 - President George W. Bush appoints Condoleezza Rice as National Security Advisor.

  • 2001 - Shirley Clarke Franklin run for Atlanta mayor was her first run for public office. She won, succeeding Mayor Bill Campbell after winning 50 percent of the vote.

  • January 2001 - President George W. Bush nominates Colin Powell to be Secretary of State.

  • September 11, 2001 - Two hijacked passenger planes crash into New York's World Trade Towers resulting in the collapse of both and 2,752 deaths.

  • September 11, 2001 - A hijacked passenger plane crash into the Pentagon causing the death of 125 people.

  • September 11, 2001 - 64 people on board a hijacked passenger plane in Pennsylvania died in a valiant attempt to fight off terrorist.

  • September 20, 2001 - President George W. Bush declares a "war on terror".



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HOW LONG WILL GOOD WHITE-AMERICANS
SIT ON THE FENCE?




whites sitting on fence


Since the beginning of American history, there's always been a fight between good and bad. The problem is that both good and bad forces claim to adore democracy. Someone is lying. You be the judge.


First, we need to define democracy and we'll let two of America's greatest Presidents do this for us by their actions and famous quotes.


Abraham Lincoln made the following quotes:

"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."

"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."


Now it's very clear from the many biased comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't the type that would have blacks over for dinner, in fact, most whites shared his views many years ago. But that's okay, at least he was honest. This site believes he would have changed his racist views if living in our time because one of his most admirable qualities was flexibility.


In contrast to Abraham Lincoln, the first President of the United States, George Washington didn't share Lincoln's view of democracy.


Black slaves were actively sought and recruited to fight for America in the Revolutionary War and promised citizenship after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself made the comment:

Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.


whites sitting on fence

But after victory in the war, America didn't keep it promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice and set the tone for future race relations in our country by trivializing and compromising real Democracy.


Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. He put money interests ahead of real Democracy. But all of America's founders didn't feel this way. A contemporary of Washington and future President John Adams hated slavery and was proud to boast he handled his business with paid workers. Did George Washington look at himself in the mirror and feel guilty about compromising (true) American Democracy? History says he didn't.


Washington created the blueprint for this distorted view of true Democracy


Blacks in the colonies had been treated poorly since their arrival from Africa, but this action by Washington made it official. This blueprint became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Whites felt if their supreme leader thought so lowly of black people, they would also.


We must all be honest with ourselves in admitting this view of Democracy was not American because it denied certain humans liberty, justice and the pursuit of happiness. Therefore we must call for what it was, which is Anti-American.


So we had two different Presidents with various versions of Democracy, and this is the way it remains today. What made Lincoln a force for good and better President was he put Democracy first and his personal prejudices second, but Washington put his financial interest ahead of true Democracy. This is what set these two men apart. Both were great men with different views about what it meant to be an American on the side of liberty and justice for all.


After Lincoln's death, democracy would take a downward spiral. One of the most biased President in American history led the attack. His name was Andrew Johnson, and he fought against the Civil Rights of blacks tooth and nail. Every favorable bill for former slaves that appeared on his desk was immediately denied. Later, there were new laws created to restrict black American citizens that worked very well. This was called the Jim Crow era. It was an all-out attack on Democracy by Anti-Americans and aided by good white Americans who remained on the fence. Read for yourself.


There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?



Did religion made things worse?


Even though the U.S. was not founded as a Christian nation and existed solely as a secular state completely free of religious influence in lawmaking, religion would soon be thrown into the loop. This made American people feel righteous and just in their own eyes. White's beleived they were "good" and made in God's image and blacks were not. In time slogans such as "In God We Trust" were printed on money to describe a people who had snuffed out Democracy, They felt God was on their side and loved only them.


Countless movies, radio shows, newspapers, magazines and other media would consistently portray these Anti-Americans as on the side of good, morally upstanding and righteous to the world with God on their side. Good white Americans had to know this was a farce because of the way it's black citizens were being treated and did nothing.


There were a relative few brave, good white Americans who spoke up during this period and got involved with some even losing their lives, but the majority did nothing. They remained on the fence because they were also partakers of the privileged American way of living and failed to realize how this was undermining true Democracy with the threat of one day being faced with an America they wouldn't recognize.


whites sitting on fence


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


So, what now?


Because of the folly of racism and privilege by Anti-Americans and the lack of action to speak out for true Democracy by good Americans, has our country morphed into another form of power? Something that is completely different than it started out as, perhaps like an insatiable, detestable and ugly monster, without a soul or conscience? You be the judge.


whites sitting on fence





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black Movies in America

Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
photo #103-yr-2001

     Movies in 2001
    Movies:
  • 2001 - Denzel Washington starred in Training Day.

  • 2001 - Halle Berry starred in Monster's Ball.



  • Blaxploitation Films:
    movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences -

  • Pootie Tang:  a comedy film incorporating many blaxploitation elements.





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famous african american birthdays

     Famous Birthdays in 2001
  • June 24, 2001 - Mo'ne Ikea Davis  an American Little League Baseball pitcher from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She is one of two girls who played in the 2014 Little League World Series and is the first girl to earn a win and to pitch a shutout in Little League World Series history.

  • December 8, 2001 - Tylen Jacob Williams  is an American actor born in Westchester County, New York. He currently plays the role of Charlie's oldest son James on the show Instant Mom.



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famous african american deaths

 Sam Jethroe
Samuel Jethroe, nicknamed "The Jet"
- photo#102-yr-1918 -

 Gloria Foster
Gloria Foster
- photo#104-yr-2001 -

     Famous Deaths in 2001
  • January 22, 2001 - Tommie Lee Agee  was a Major League Baseball center fielder most noted for making two of the greatest catches in World Series history, both of which occurred in game three of the 1969 World Series.

  • May 1, 2001 - Wheels Wheelwright  was a former American football player. He was born in Columbus, Ohio on and attended Southern Illinois University.

  • May 22, 2001 - Whitman Mayo was an American actor best known for his role as Grady Wilson on the 1970s television sitcom Sanford and Son.

  • June 18, 2001 - Samuel Jethroe, nicknamed "The Jet" was an American center fielder in Negro league and Major League Baseball.

  • June 21, 2001 - John Lee Hooker was an American blues singer, songwriter and guitarist. He was born in Mississippi, the son of a sharecropper, and rose to prominence performing an electric guitar-style adaptation of Delta blues.

  • August 18, 2001 - Edmund Cambridge  was an American actor and director who was a founding member of the Negro Ensemble Company (NEC) and the Kilpatrick-Cambridge Theater Arts School.

  • August 25, 2001 - Aaliyah was an American singer, dancer, actress, and model. On August 25, 2001, Aaliyah and eight others were killed in a plane crash in The Bahamas after filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat".

  • September 9, 2001 - Tommy Hollis was an American actor. A native of Jacksonville, Texas, he starred as Earl Little in the Spike Lee-directed movie Malcolm X (1992).

  • September 29, 2001 - Gloria Foster  was an American actress, most known for her stage performances both on and off Broadway.

  • October 11, 2001 - Otis E. Young  was an actor, writer and anti-Vietnam war activist. Young co-starred in a television Western, The Outcasts (1968–1969), with Don Murray.

  • December 11, 2001 - Beverly Hope Atkinson   was an African-American stage, film, and television actress from the 1960s until 1991, known for her character work playing women down-on-their-luck or caught up in drug addiction.

  • 2001 - Laura Webb was a member of an African American R&B girl group, The Bobbettes.



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African American culture going downhill

deceased hip-hop artist
  • Edward Lee Knight (1971–2001), best known by his stage name Big Ed (or briefly Big Ed the Assassin), was an American rapper who was signed to Master P's No Limit Records in 1992, although releasing his first and only solo album The Assassin on No Limit in 1998. Big Ed died of throat cancer in August 2001.

  • Joe Paquette (May 5, 1963 – May 16, 2001), better known as Prince Ital Joe, was a Dominican-born American musician best known for his collaborations with Marky Mark. Prince Ital Joe died on May 16, 2001 from injuries sustained in a car accident.

  • Sporty Thievz was a Yonkers, New York hip-hop group, originally a trio, composed of King Kirk (a.k.a. Thieven Stealburg), Big Dubez (a.k.a. Safecracker) and Marlon Bryant Brando (1979-2001) (a.k.a. Robin Hood) On May 11, 2001, group member Marlon Bryant Brando was killed after being struck by a car in North Bronx at the age of 21.

  • Anthony Ian Berkeley (November 15, 1964 – July 15, 2001) better known as Poetic, was an American rapper and producer. Poetic died of colon cancer on July 15, 2001.

  • Aaliyah Dana Haughton (January 16, 1979 – August 25, 2001) was an American singer, dancer, actress, and model. On August 25, 2001, Aaliyah and eight others were killed in a plane crash in The Bahamas after filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat".

  • Ronald Fields (January 11, 1968 – September 4, 2001), better known by his stage name Cougnut, was an American rapper from the Lakeview neighborhood of San Francisco, California. On September 4, 2001, Fields was killed in a car accident in Northern California.

  • "DJ Uncle Al" (August 14, 1969 – September 10, 2001), born Albert Moss in Miami, Florida, was an American DJ. Moss was shot and killed on September 10, 2001.



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IF NOT, WHY SO DIFFICULT TO FIND FOR MANY?


National issues have always been compounded for black males and females in America. The feminist movement of the 70s ushered in a division between men and women relationships both black and white. It taught the woman to be self-reliant, strong and independent from the male, and we must all admit she has down an outstanding job.

black relationships
photo#117-yr-2015


But in regards to relationships, black women had another issue to add to this because the black male in America has historically been a target of hate and fear and will probably continue to be so. After the 60s, the face of racism and exclusion changed its ugly image from overt to covert for the most part which can be just as damaging.

Let's be totally honest. Black men are simply not well liked or spoken of kindly in America. Just about every article we read in the papers or internet is something negative when editors just as easily could have chosen a positive story of black male kindness. People tolerate black men, but don't want any part of us, or to get to know us as human beings or fellow Americans.

After slavery whites instituted illegal laws that were 100% against our Constitution which enabled them to build an enormous and exclusive white power structure that still stands today.

Even today many black men are intimidated by this power structure and refuse to challenge it in an intelligent way, like picking up a book and using their God-given brain power. This is why our distant ancestors in Africa who come to America as immigrants to enroll in American colleges don't want anything to do with black Americans.

They think we're foolish for wasting this incredible opportunity in gaining success. They know it's not because black American males can't do it, it's because we don't want to do it. To prove this point, Google "African immigrants in college" and discover that African/Asian immigrants out-perform all races academically in higher learning.


No one would deny that African-Americans and Africans are from the same stock of humanity. So why is it black immigrants can achieve on such a high level in America and we don't?


It's because we start out the gate with a disadvantage created by this humongous power structure against us, and even more sad is our own people, AKA black role models who sell their damaging, negative and harmful products teaching our young males an entirely different approach to American success while they pad their already fat pocketbooks.

What they rap/sing/act about doesn't include books and education, but glorifies a life of having fun each and every day. For the most part, good black parents struggle to compete with these very powerful enemies and lose their sons to the streets.

Before the movement, there were more blacks who were married than whites. But that would later change. When the opportunity presented itself, these aggressive and amazing black women took off to achieve and soar like the eagles, leaving the intimidated black male in the dust with his foolish boy-like games. Many black women would go on to raise families without the intimidated and targeted black man in the children's life.

No one better than her understood what the black male was going through facing everyday life, and she would have supported him if he would have put up some intelligent fight, but many struggling black men didn't and chose a foolish life of running game, and backwards living that's opposite of what it takes for American success.

In today's world, black women probably encounter these same struggling black men much more than the successful ones in their quest for love, but judge them as all the same.

Many extraordinary black men have figured out the white power structure game and became successful at it, and continues to do so. There are tons of black fellas who are intelligent, honorable, stable, gainfully employed, and faithful who just desires a smart, sexy, girly black woman who understands how to relax in her femininity and allow the man to rest in his masculinity for the well-being of the relationship.

These extraordinary single black men sincerely wonder if they stand an ounce of a chance with the characteristic traits of a typical Black American woman.

Who are today's black women? We all know they are amazing human beings to accomplish what they have, but have they out-smarted themselves in regards to male-female relationships?

black men love black women

How would you answer?

Letisha is a 30-year-old college educated black woman who has worked hard as a lawyer to achieve the lifestyle she adores which includes a lovely home, luxury cars, plenty of cash in the bank and much food in the refrigerator. In a good year, Letisha will make $150,000. Letisha doesn't want for anything except for meeting a nice man, falling in love and getting married.

Lamont is a blue collar worker earning just enough to get by. He is self-taught in everything he does and is quite smart. He owns a junk yard that was left to him by his long-deceased dad, Fred. Lamont prefers his profession to be recognized as dealing in commodities. He loves his work. He just doesn't make much money from it. In a good year, Lamont will make $35,000.

Letisha decides to treat herself to a month long vacation in Hawaii staying at the best hotel. Lamont who plays the lottery every week finally hit a little jackpot decided to do the same. Fate would have these two young black people meeting and discovering an instant attraction and love connection, and happy they have a whole month to nurture it along.

Lamont and Letisha are inseparable the entire vacation. Letisha explains to Lamont that she's a lawyer and Lamont explains to her he's a dealer in commodities. They are so connected; they never run out of words to say, and even finish each other's sentences. Well, needless to say, they eventually make mad passionate love with Letisha shedding one tear which was always her gauge of a real lover.

Letisha and Lamont were very excited about what the future held for them. Possible marriage was even discussed. On the last day of vacation, they exchanged addresses. Letisha was so excited she expressed to Lamont she couldn't wait to visit him. Two weeks later and upon arriving at Lamont's junkyard business she couldn't believe the huge sign that read "Top Commodities Dealer, Lamont." Letisha made a quick u-turn and never called Lamont again. Lamont felt hurt and wondered if another type of woman would have stayed.

Which woman do you more associate with?

(1) The woman that stayed and continued with her relationship with Lamont is a level headed woman and hasn't let money cloud her view of real life and potential happiness with an otherwise good black man who had proven to stimulate both her mind and body.

(2) The woman that made the quick u-turn is the frustrated one, and always complaining about there not being any good black men because she equates money with happiness, when quite the contrary joy and love is very straightforward and easy. Being unreasonable she makes everything difficult.

Analysis:  Independent black women have accomplished so much since the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and have our wonderful African American ancestors to thank for the opportunity. Money should only be used as a tool for the benefit of the relationship between a man and woman not a gauge of another person's character or worth. Real men for decades found pride in bringing home the bacon to their wives who didn't work and those relationships worked just fine, only because money was not the primary factor, love and respect was.



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african americans and weddings

Toni Braxton
Toni Braxton
photo #104-yr-1967

 Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
photo #109-yr-1967

Richard Pryor
Richard Pryor
photo #114-yr-1973

     Famous Weddings in 2001
  • January 1, 2001 - Keshia Knight Pulliam and Hosea Chanchez were wed.

  • January 24, 2001 - Eric Benet and Halle Berry were wed.

  • March 2001 - Nicole Ari Parker  and Joseph Falasca were wed.

  • April 3, 2001 - Ja Rule and Aisha Atkins were wed.

  • April 18, 2001 - Kobe Bryant and Vanessa Bryant were wed.

  • April 12, 2001 - Gladys Knight and William McDowell were wed.

  • April 21, 2001 - Toni Braxton  and Keri Lewis were wed.

  • May 5, 2001 - Gabrielle Union and Chris Howard were wed.

  • May 12, 2001 - Garcelle Beauvais and  Mike Nilon were wed.

  • June 16, 2001 - Keenen Ivory Wayans and Daphne Polk were wed.

  • June 29, 2001 - Richard Pryor marries Jennifer Lee for the second time, and remained married until his death.

  • July 21, 2001 - Tim Duncan  and Amy Sherrill were wed.

  • August 3, 2001 - Allen Iverson and Tawanna Turner were wed.

  • October 12, 2001 - Natalie Cole and Kenneth H. Dupree were wed.

  • December 31, 2001 - Ice-T and Nicole Austin were wed.

  • December 31, 2001 - Prince and Manuela Testolini were wed.

  • 2001 - Dave Chappelle  and Elaine Chappelle were wed.

  • 2001 - Jill Scott and Lyzel Williams were wed.

  • 2001 - Kurupt  and Natina Reed were wed.

  • 2001 - David Justice and Rebecca Villalobos were wed.

  • 2001 - Stevie Wonder  and Karen Millard-Morris were wed.

  • 2001 - Corinne Bailey Rae and Jason Rae were wed.



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famous african american divorces

     Famous Divorces in 2001
  • February 2001 - Phylicia Rashad and Ahmad Rashad were divorced.

  • August 9, 2001 - Robert Townsend  and Cheri Jones were divorced.

  • November 2001 - Nicole Ari Parker and Joseph Falasca were divorced.

  • 2001 - Kim Fields  and Johnathon Franklin Freeman were divorced.

  • 2001 - Sandra Pepa Denton and Anthony Treach Criss were divorced.

  • 2001 - Sheryl Ralph and Eric Maurice were divorced.

  • 2001 - Traci Bingham and Robb Vallier were divorced.



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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Toni Braxton
Toni Braxton
photo #104-yr-1967

Macy Gray
Macy Gray performs in Memphis
Photo Credit: Larry Philpot, www.soundstagephotography.com
photo #100-yr-2001

R. Kelly
R. Kelly
photo #104-yr-1998

Janet Jackson
Janet Jackson
photo #104-yr-1994

Aretha Franklin
Aretha Franklin
photo #100-yr-1971

Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
photo #115-yr-1990

Mary Jane Blige
Mary J. Blige
photo #106-yr-1971

     Music in 2001

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Independent Women Part I" Destiny's Child

  • "I Just Wanna Luv U (Give It 2 Me)" Jay-Z

  • "Danger (Been So Long)" Mystikal featuring Nivea

  • "Ms. Jackson" OutKast

  • "Stutter" Joe featuring Mystikal

  • "It's Over Now" 112

  • "Promise" Jagged Edge

  • "All for You" Janet

  • "Missing You" Case

  • "My Baby" Lil' Romeo

  • "Fiesta" R. Kelly featuring Jay-Z

  • "U Remind Me" Usher

  • "Loverboy" Mariah Carey featuring Cameo

  • "Fallin'" Alicia Keys

  • "Where the Party At" Jagged Edge with Nelly

  • "Differences" Ginuwine

  • "Family Affair" Mary J. Blige

  • "U Got It Bad" Usher




  Popular Soul Dances:
  • Turfing

  • Jerkin

  • Harlem shake

  • Cat Daddy

  • Krumping

  • Gas Pedal

  • Wop

  • Ailey

  • Graham

  • Dougie

  • Twerking




  Musical Happenings in 2001:
  • Aaliyah an American singer, dancer, actress, and model and eight others were killed in a plane crash in The Bahamas after filming the music video for the single "Rock the Boat". RIP Aaliyah you will not be forgotten.

  • October 21, 2001 - A "United We Stand" benefit concert for September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks victims was organized. Featured performers were Michael Jackson, Mariah Carey and more.



 Blues Hall of Fame for 2001:
    The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015

  • Etta James
  • Little Junior Parker
  • Rufus Thomas


 BET Awards winners in 2001:
    The BET Awards were established in 2001 by the Black Entertainment Television network to celebrate African Americans and other minorities in music, acting, sports, and other fields of entertainment over the past year. Steve Harvey and Cedric the Entertainer hosted the 2001 BET Awards.

    Best Female Hip-Hop Artist
  • Eve


  • Best Male Hip-Hop Artist
  • Jay-Z


  • Best Gospel Artist
  • Donnie McClurkin


  • Best Female R&B Artist
  • Mary J. Blige


  • Best Male R&B Artist
  • Musiq


  • Best Group
  • OutKast


  • Best New Artist
  • Nelly


  • Video of the Year
  • "Ms. Jackson" performed by OutKast


  • Viewer's Choice
  • Bow Wow – "Bow Wow (That's My Name)"


  • Best Actress
  • Sanaa Lathan


  • Best Actor
  • Denzel Washington


  • Best Female Athlete
  • Marion Jones


  • Best Male Athlete
  • Allen Iverson


  • Lifetime Achievement Award
  • Whitney Houston





 Grammy winners in 2001:
    The 3rd Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 21, 2001 at Staples Center, Los Angeles.

    Best Traditional Blues Album
  • Simon Climie (producer), Alan Douglas (engineer), Eric Clapton (producer & artist) & B. B. King for Riding with the King


  • Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album
  • Bubba Smith, Michael E. Mathis (producers) & Shirley Caesar (producer & artist) for You Can Make It


  • Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album
  • Warryn "Baby Dubb" Campbell (producer) & Mary Mary for Thankful


  • Best Gospel Choir or Chorus Album
  • Carol Cymbala & Oliver Wells (producers) for Live - God Is Working performed by The Brooklyn Tabernacle Choir


  • Best Historical Album
  • Steve Berkowitz, Seth Rothstein for Louis Armstrong: The Complete Hot Five and Hot Seven Recordings


  • Best Jazz Vocal Album
  • Erik Zobler (engineer/mixer), George Duke (producer) & Dianne Reeves for In the Moment – Live In Concert


  • Best Boxed Recording Package
  • Arnold Levine & Frank Harkins (art directors) for Miles Davis & John Coltrane: The Complete Columbia Recordings 1955-1961 performed by Miles Davis & John Coltrane


  • Best Album Notes
  • Bob Blumenthal (notes writer) for Miles Davis & John Coltrane: The Complete Columbia Recordings 1955-1961 performed by Miles Davis & John Coltrane


  • Best Female Pop Vocal Performance
  • "I Try" - Macy Gray


  • Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals
  • "Is You Is, or Is You Ain't (My Baby)" - B.B. King & Dr. John


  • Producer of the Year, Non-Classical
  • Dr. Dre


  • Best Female R&B Vocal Performance
  • He Wasn't Man Enough-Toni Braxton


  • Best Male R&B Vocal Performance
  • Untitled (How Does It Feel)-D'Angelo


  • Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
  • Say My Name-Destiny's Child


  • Best Traditional R&B Vocal Performance
  • Ear-Resistible-The Temptations


  • Best R&B Song
  • La Shawn Daniels, Fred Jerkins III, Rodney Jerkins, Beyoncé Knowles, LeToya Luckett, LaTavia Roberson & Kelendria Rowland for "Say My Name" performed by Destiny's Child


  • Best R&B Album
  • Voodoo-D'Angelo


  • Best Reggae Album
  • Art and Life-Beenie Man


  • Best Male Rock Vocal Performance
  • Lenny Kravitz for "Again"


  • Best Spoken Word Album
  • Rick Harris, John Runnette (producers) & Sidney Poitier for The Measure of a Man


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "All Along the Watchtower" The Jimi Hendrix Experience


  • Hall of Fame Award
  • "Chain of Fools" Aretha Franklin




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fashions

whitetail fashion
Low-rise jeans and thong whale tail of the 2000s
photo #101-yr-2000

low-rise jeans
Young woman in low-rise jeans
photo #102-yr-2000

mens shoe
Nike Jordan Tennis Shoes
photo #103-yr-2000

mens baseball cap
Men's baseball cap
photo #104-yr-2000

     Fashions in 2001

  Popular Fashions:

    Overview:
    The 2000s fashion are often described as being a "mash-up", where trends saw the fusion of previous styles, global and ethnic clothing (e.g. boho), as well as the fashions of numerous music-based subcultures. Hip-hop fashion generally was the most popular among young people, followed by the unisex indie look later in the decade.


    Women:
    When the 2000s kicked off, the fashion was profoundly influenced by technology. From late 1999 until late 2001, there was a monochromatic futuristic approach to fashion, with metallics, shiny blacks, heavy use of gray, straps, and buckles becoming commonplace. This was called "Y2K fashion". Particular pieces of Y2K clothing included mesh tops, box-pleated skirts, handkerchief tops, satin skirts, leather skirts, concert t-shirts with rhinestones, sparkling shoes, halter tops, and sequinned pants. Girl's fashion trends were oversized sunglasses, aviator sunglasses, oversized hoop earrings, jeans worn for numerous occasions (such as low-rise, boot-cut, fabric accents down the sides, fabric accents sewn into the flares, lace-up sides and tie-dye), wedge flip flops, hot pants, denim jackets, chunky sweaters, pashmina scarves, Skechers, belly shirts, and tube tops. Women wore long-sleeved shirts with bell sleeves, cowl-neck tops, crop tops, Burberry, hoodies, flare jeans, hip-huggers, low rise pants, white jeans, whale tails, cargo pants (especially ones made out of silk, satin, and velvet) hip-hop inspired sweatpants, daisy dukes, thong underwear, and solid bright-colored tights. These fashions remained popular well into the late 2000s. Popular accessories of the early 2000s include white belts, aviator sunglasses, trucker hats, hoop earrings, Mary Janes, leg warmers (worn with mini skirts), ugg boots, flip-flops, jelly shoes, lace-up sandals, newsboy caps, ponchos, and jelly bracelets.


    Men:
    At the very beginning of the decade, the excitement of entering the new millennium had become evident in fashion in the first couple of years, although this was only prominent in nightclub and "going out" attire. Clothing was mostly made in black, though silver was also fashionable. An example of this would be a tracksuit, a dress shirt, a pair of pants, a camp shirt, or a jacket in a fancy metallic pattern for going out; while also compromising of items such as leather coats and pants, puffy vests and jackets, ribbed sweaters and shirts, and chunky dress shoes, usually in futuristic colors such as black, silver, light gray, and white. After the events of 9/11, fashion became more conservative, forgoing the futuristic styles of before. Distressed denim made a comeback, with sandblasted highlights, frosted jeans, ripped jeans, and whiskering becoming commonplace. A lower rise jean had emerged during this part of the decade, effectively getting rid of the high-waisted styles of the 1990s. Light-colored polo shirts (sometimes striped and with collars popped), cargo pants (even ones made out of linen during warmer months), khaki chinos, bootcut jeans, corduroy pants, and rugby shirts. Practical hiking jackets (of the type made by Berghaus), fleeces, puffer jackets, and padded tartan lumberjack-type shirts were worn as winter outerwear along with brown, grey, burgundy, rust, maroon, or forest green turtleneck sweaters, and odd navy blue, stone grey, beige, or natural linen sportcoats that fastened with three buttons. These fashions continued into the mid and late 2000s. Men's Accessories of the early 2000s included white belts, Aviator sunglasses, trucker hats, flip-flops, oxford shoes, argyle socks, sneakers from brands such as Nike, Skechers, Adidas, and Puma, baseball caps (bearing the logos of football, soccer, basketball, and baseball teams), and jelly bracelets.


    Youth Fashions:
    Youth fashion was strongly influenced by Hip-Hop. The clothing of American hip-hop fans underwent an evolution from the sagging baggy gangster jeans of the late 1990s to a more retro look by the end of the decade. Popular items of clothing included wide leg jeans, baseball jackets,Nike Air Jordans, tracksuits, sweatpants, bucket hats, stunna shades, fur-lined puffer jackets, and flat-brim trucker hats or baseball caps (often retaining the store label). During the early 2000s, many wealthy white jocks and preppies imitated the gangsta lifestyle, eschewing the semi-formal conservative look of the 1980s and 90s in favor of gold bling, expensive designer clothes, sneakers, dark jeans, and sweatpants.


    Hairstyles:
    For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.



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the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up



For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Corn-Shucking+Festival

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.


Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans


Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans


Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool


Resources:
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
https://pixabay.com/en/flag-united-states-american-waving-40724/



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 2000s

Zora Neale Hurston
Zora Neale Hurston
photo #105-yr-1891

Our Community in 2001
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • Bernard Shaw retires as news anchor for CNN.

  • Zora Neale Hurston's manuscript Every Tongue Got to Confess (2001), a collection of folktales gathered in the 1920s, was published posthumously after being discovered in the Smithsonian archives.

  • 2000s - The United States Population is 281,421,906 with a total of 34,658,190 being African Americans.




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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   By Larry Philpot (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   By GabboT (The Equalizer 07) [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

=================================================== #102 -   By National Park Service [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

By White House photo by Eric Draper [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

By Jim Watson (http://www.news.navy.mil/view_single.asp?id=1465) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

By Don Halasy [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

By Federal Bureau of Invesigation (Ten Most Wanted May 3, 2011) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

================================================================

#103 -   Paul Rudman [ CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   By ABC Television (eBay item frontback) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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