Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1992:
Alex Haley was an American writer known as the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family. The book was adapted by ABC as a TV mini-series of the same name and aired in 1977 to a record-breaking 130 million viewers. It had great influence on awareness in the United States of African-American history and inspired a broad interest in genealogy and family history.
Alex Haley was born in Ithaca, New York, on August 11, 1921, and was the oldest of three brothers and a sister. Haley lived with his family in Henning, Tennessee, before returning to Ithaca with his family when he was five years old.
Like his father, Alex Haley was enrolled at age 15 at Alcorn State University, a historically black college, and, a year later, enrolled at Elizabeth City State College, also historically black, in North Carolina.
The following year he returned to his father and stepmother to tell them he had withdrawn from the college. His father felt that Alex needed discipline and growth, and convinced him to enlist in the military when he turned 18. On May 24, 1939, Alex Haley began what became a 20-year career with the United States Coast Guard.
During his enlistment he was often paid by other sailors to write love letters to their girlfriends. He said that the greatest enemy he and his crew faced during their long voyages was not the Japanese forces but rather boredom.
Haley conducted the first interview for Playboy magazine. His interview with jazz musician Miles Davis appeared in the September 1962 issue. Haley elicited candid comments from Davis about his thoughts and feelings on racism. That meeting set the tone for what became a significant feature of the magazine. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Playboy Interview with Haley was the longest he ever granted to any publication.
Haley also interviewed Muhammad Ali, who spoke about changing his name from Cassius Clay. Other interviews include Jack Ruby's defense attorney Melvin Belli, entertainer Sammy Davis, Jr., football player Jim Brown, TV host Johnny Carson, and music producer Quincy Jones.
Haley's first book was 1965's The Autobiography of Malcolm X, a collaboration through numerous lengthy interviews with the subject, a major African-American leader.
In 1976, Haley published Roots: The Saga of an American Family, a novel based on his family's history, going back to slavery days. It started with the story of Kunta Kinte, who was kidnapped in the Gambia in 1767 and transported to the Province of Maryland to be sold as a slave. Haley claimed to be a seventh-generation descendant of Kunta Kinte, and his work on the novel involved ten years of research, intercontinental travel and writing.
He went to the village of Juffure, where Kunta Kinte grew up and which had continued, and listened to a tribal historian (griot) tell the story of Kinte's capture. Haley also traced the records of the ship, The Lord Ligonier, which he said carried his ancestor to the Americas.
Roots were eventually published in 37 languages. Haley won a special Pulitzer Prize for the work in 1977. The same year, Roots was adapted as a popular television miniseries of the same name by ABC. The serial reached a record-breaking 130 million viewers. Roots emphasized that African Americans have a long history and that not all of that history is necessarily lost, as many believed. Its popularity also sparked a significantly increased public interest in genealogy.
Just about everyone in the nation was enthralled with the TV mini-series Roots. I bet there were even many racists who watched and learned a thing or two. Maybe it softened their hearts a little. Alex Haley was a genius in the way he delivered his message so all could appreciate the great American story of the Negro. For this, we honor this special human being with the 1992 Hamite Award for telling our inspiring and captivating story to an eager world who were listening.
He was working on a second family history novel at his death. Haley had requested that David Stevens, a screenwriter, complete it; the book was published as Alex Haley's Queen. It was adapted into a film of the same name released in 1993.
Haley died February 10, 1992 of cardiac arrest. He was 70 years old.
Alex Haley |
| 1992 |
Probably the most important marriage to African Americans in the 20th century. It reinforced a message of love for black couples.
| Sports in 1992 |
- 1992 - William "Bill" Pinkney becomes the first African American to navigate a sailboat around the world solo.
- February 1, 1992 - Baseball's Barry Bonds signs MLB highest single year contract at a whopping $4.7 milion dollars.
- February 10, 1992 - Boxer Mike Tyson was convicted of raping Desiree Washington in Indiana, and would later be sentenced to 10 years in prison.
- February 11, 1992 - Track and Field's Michael Johnson runs an indoor world record 400meters at a blazing 44.97 seconds.
- February 16, 1992 - Los Angeles Lakers retire the great Magic Johnson's #32 jersey.
- May 1, 1992 - Baseball's Rickey Henderson steals an amazing 1,000 bases.
- June 17, 1992 - Philadelphia 76ers basketball team trade Charles Barkley to the Phoenix Suns.
- June 19, 1992 - Boxer Evander Holyfield defeats an aging Larry Holmes in the 12th round for the heavyweight boxing title.
- July 14, 1992 - Baseball's All star Most Valuable Player award went to Ken Griffey Jr of the Seattle Mariners.
- October 11, 1992 - Versatile Deion Sanders, will play for Atlanta Falcons & Atlanta Braves in the same year.
- October 27, 1992 - Baseball's Don Baylor appointed as the first manager of Colorado Rockies.
- November 13, 1992 - Boxer Riddick Bowe defeats Evander Holyfield in the 12th round for the heavyweight boxing title.
- December 14, 1992 - BoxerLennox Lewis is awarded the WBC title because Riddick Bowe refused to fight him.
- December 15, 1992 - Tennis great Arthur Ashe is named Sports Illustrated Sportman of Year.
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown
DID YOU KNOW?
Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s, and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages, the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.
The song, "Say It Loud I'm Black and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.
Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All
It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.
But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these different classes to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.
But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.
Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?
Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and worldly intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.
Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.
So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.
But in time things would change and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.
Scientific discoveries would later determine they was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.
Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.
But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.
Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.
Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything meaningful. They hate America. They're not true Americans and completely fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history.
President George Bush
Carol Moseley Braun
| Political Scene in 1992 |
- 1992 - George Herbert Walker Bush, an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. A Republican, he previously served as a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.
- April 23, 1992 - Former D.C. mayor Marion Berry is released from prison.
- November 3, 1992 - Politician Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois becomes the first African American woman elected to the United States Senate.
| Race in 1992 |
- April 29, 1992 - The 1992 Los Angeles riots, also known as the Rodney King riots, the South Central riots, were a series of riots, lootings, arsons and civil disturbance that occurred in Los Angeles County, California in 1992, following the acquittal of police officers on trial regarding a videotaped and widely-covered police brutality incident.
- August 5th, 1992 - four Los Angeles cops in Rodney King brutality incident are indicted on civil rights charges.
|| sLANG tALK in the 1990s |
- Sup - What's up
- Aiight - Alright, okay
- All That - Complete package, not lacking
- All that and a bag a chips - Complete
- Bangin'/Slammin' - Got it going on
- Beef - Trouble with someone
- Beeotch - Bitch
- Bling-Bling - Jewelry
- The Bomb - Perfect, out of this world
- Boo Ya! - In your face sucka
- Bounce - To leave, go
- Cha-Ching - Ring it up, gonna cost
- Cheddar - Money, greenback
- Chill Out - Relax
- Chillin' - Relaxing
- Churrin - Kids, children
- Crib - The house, pad
- Damn Skippy - You got that right!
- Dawg - Friend, term of endearment
- Dis - Disrepect
- Dope - Super cool, badd
- Down With That - In agreement
- Fine - The best
- Finna - About to do something
- Fly - Cool, something good
- Fresh - Brand new, cool, great
- Hella - Emphasis
- Hoochie - Fast, easy girl
- Hood - Your neighborhood
- It's all good - Everything is OK, under control
- Jack You Up - Hurt you badly
- Jet - Leave quickly
- Let's Role - Leave
- Math - Phone number
- My Bad - My mistake, I'm sorry
- O.G. - Original Ganster
- Oh Snaps! - Oh yeah that's right!
- Old School - Old way of doing things
- Paper - Money
- Phat - Cool
- Pimpin - Correctly done
- Po-po - Police
- Scrub - A guy that's lacking
- Straight - Telling the whole truth
- Throw Down - Fight
- Trippin - Worried about something
- Vibe - Feeling
- Wack - Terrible, not good
- Wangsta - A fake ganster
- Word - In agreement
- Yayo - Money
- Yo - Hello, short for "your"
| Television / Movies in 1992 |
- November 18, 1992 - "Malcolm X" with Denzel Washington premieres in the United States.
- Ellen Cleghorne is an American actress and comedian, best known for being a cast member of Saturday Night Live from 1991 to 1995.
- April 30, 1992 - The 208th and final episode of the very popular Cosby Show aired on NBC-TV.
- July 14, 1992 - Popular actress Nell Carter undergoes brain surgery.
- March 18, 1992 - Donna Summer gets a star on Hollywood's Walk of Fame.
| Famous Birthdays in 1992 |
- July 25, 1992 - Lil Phat hip hop artist.
- October 17, 1992 - Jacob Artist actor, singer and dancer.
| Famous Deaths in 1992 |
- February 10, 1992 - Alex Haley was an American writer. He is best known as the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family.
- February 21, 1992 - Eva Jessye professional choral conductor.
- August 25, 1992 - Frederick O'Neal was an American actor, theater producer and television director. He founded the American Negro Theater and was the first African-American president of the Actors' Equity Association.
- October 5, 1992 - Eddie Kendricks singer and songwriter of Temptations fame.
- November 12, 1992 - Eric Burroughs stage and radio actor whose career spanned the 1930s to the early 1960s.
Obama family portrait in the Green Room
| Famous Weddings in 1992 |
- April 24, 1992 - Iman Bowie marries David Bowie.
- April 26, 1992 - Ice Cube marries Kimberly Woodruff.
- April 29, 1992 - Paula Abdul marries Emilio Estevez.
- May 9, 1992 - Will Smith marries Sheree Smith.
- May 14, 1992 - Nell Carter marries Roger Larocque.
- May, 1992 - Aisha Tyler marries Jeff Tietjens.
- July 18, 1992 - Whitney Houston marries ex-New Edition hitmaker, Bobby Brown.
- September 5, 1992 - Kenneth Babyface Edmonds marries Tracey E. Edmonds.
- September 26, 1992 - Dominique Wilkins marries Nicole Berry.
- October 3, 1992 - LeVar Burton marries Stephanie Cozart Burton.
- October 3, 1992 - Barack Obama marries Michelle Obama.
- 1992 - Kelly Price marries Jeffrey Rolle.
- 1992 - Michael Eric Dyson marries Marcia Louise.
- 1992 - Tim Hardaway marries Yolanda Hardaway.
- 1992 - Karyn White marries Terry Lewis
- 1992 - Barbara McNair marries Charles Becka
| Famous Divorces in 1992 |
- December 1992 - Lynn Whitfield and Brian Gibson were divorced.
- 1992 - O.J. Simpson and Nicole Brown Simpson were divorced.
- 1992 - Nell Carter and George Krynicki were divorced.
- 1992 - Lou Gossett, Jr. and Cyndi James-Reese were divorced.
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
Mary J. Blige
The only known photo of Blues musician Skip James in his youth
| Music in 1992 |
Billboard Top Soul Hits:
- I Love Your Smile Shanice
- Tell Me What You Want Me to Do Tevin Campbell
- Keep It Comin' Keith Sweat
- Stay Jodeci
- Uhh Ahh Boyz II Men
- Baby Hold On To Me Gerald Levert with Eddie Levert
- Remember the Time Michael Jackson
- Diamonds and Pearls Prince and the New Power Generation
- Save the Best For Last Vanessa Williams
- Here I Go Again Glenn Jones
- Don't Be Afraid Aaron Hall
- All Woman Lisa Stansfield
- My Lovin' (You're Never Gonna Get It) En Vogue
- Come and Talk to Me Jodeci
- Honey Love R. Kelly and Public Announcement
- In the Closet Michael Jackson
- Do It to Me Lionel Richie
- Tennessee Arrested Development
- The Best Things in Life Are Free Luther Vandross and Janet Jackson
- You Remind Me Mary J. Blige
- Giving Him Something He Can Feel En Vogue
- Baby-Baby-Baby TLC
- End of the Road Boyz II Men
- Humpin' Around Bobby Brown
- Slow Dance (Hey Mr. DJ) R. Kelly and Public Announcement
- Alone with You Tevin Campbell
- Real Love Mary J. Blige
- Right Now Al B. Sure!
- Sweet November Troop
- Ain't Nobody Like You Miki Howard
- Games Chuckii Booker
- If I Ever Fall In Love Shai
- I Will Always Love You Whitney Houston
Popular Soul Dances:
- The Hammer
- Electric Slide
- The Carlton
- The Jiggy
- Tootsee Roll
- Rump Shaker
- Da Dip
- The Butterfly
- The Funky Charleston
- The Humpy Dance
Musical Happenings in 1992:
- The song "Cop Killer" by Body Count, fronted by Ice-T, becomes the subject of national controversy and is pulled from the album by Warner Brothers, due to concerns that the song promotes the murder of police.
- Awadagin Pratt wins the Walter W. Naumburg International Piano Competition, the first African American to do. so
- Branford Marsalis reaches an African American music milestone when he is appointed bandleader for The Tonight Show, the first black musician to occupy a "major spot on mainstream nighttime television".
Blues Hall of Fame for 1992:
The Blues Hall of Fame is a music museum located in Memphis, Tennessee. Until recently, the "Blues Hall of Fame" was not a physical building, but a listing of people who have significantly contributed to blues music. Started in 1980 by the Blues Foundation, it honors those who have performed, recorded, or documented blues. The actual building for the hall opened to the public on May 8, 2015
- Skip James
- Johnny Shines
- Big Joe Williams
American Music Awards winners in: 1992
The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.
Favorite Pop/Rock Female Artist
- Paula Abdul
Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
- Luther Vandross
Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
- Mariah Carey
Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
- Bell Biv Devoe
Favorite Soul/R&B Album
- Power of Love - Luther Vandross
Favorite Soul/R&B Single
- "I Wanna Sex You Up" - Color Me Badd
Favorite Soul/R&B New Artist
- Boyz II Men
Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Artist
- MC Hammer
Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop Album
- Homebase - DJ Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince
Favorite Rap/Hip-Hop New Artist
- Naughty By Nature
Favorite Adult Contemporary Artist
- Natalie Cole
Favorite Adult Contemporary Album
- Unforgettable... with Love - Natalie Cole
Award of Achievement
- James Brown
Grammy winners in 1992:
The 34th Annual Grammy Awards were held on February 25, 1992. They recognized accomplishments by musicians from the previous year (1991). Natalie Cole was the big winner winning three awards including Album of the Year.
Record of the Year
- David Foster (producer) for "Unforgettable" performed by Natalie Cole with Nat King Cole
Album of the Year
- David Foster (producer) for Unforgettable... with Love performed by Natalie Cole
Song of the Year
- Irving Gordon (songwriter) for "Unforgettable" performed by Natalie Cole with Nat King Cole
Best Traditional Blues Album
- Live at the Apollo-B.B. King
Best Contemporary Blues Album
- Damn Right, I've Got the Blues-Buddy Guy
Best Instrumental Arrangement Accompanying Vocal(s)
- Johnny Mandel (arranger) for "Unforgettable" performed by Natalie Cole with Nat King Cole
Best Traditional Soul Gospel Album
- Mighty Clouds of Joy for Pray For Me
Best Contemporary Soul Gospel Album
- BeBe Winans & CeCe Winans for Different Lifestyles
Best Gospel Album by Choir or Chorus
- Gary Hines (choir director) for The Evolution of Gospel performed by The Sounds of Blackness
Best Historical Album
- for Billie Holiday - The Complete Decca Recordings
Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Group
- The Oscar Peterson Trio for Saturday Night at the Blue Note
Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance
- Dizzy Gillespie for Live at the Royal Festival Hall
Best Jazz Vocal Performance
- Take 6 for He Is Christmas
Best Engineered Recording, Non-Classical
- for Unforgettable... with Love performed by Natalie Cole with Nat King Cole
Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
- Lisa Fischer for "How Can I Ease the Pain" Patti LaBelle for Burnin' (Lisa Fischer and Patti LaBelle both tied in the category of Best Female R&B Vocal Performance, therefore both won awards.)
Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
- Luther Vandross for Power of Love
Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal
- Boyz II Men for Cooleyhighharmony
Best Rhythm & Blues Song
- Marcus Miller, Luther Vandross & Teddy Vann (songwriters) for "Power of Love/Love Power" performed by Luther Vandross
Best Rap Solo Performance
- LL Cool J for "Mama Said Knock You Out"
Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group
- D.J. Jazzy Jeff & the Fresh Prince for "Summertime"
Best Reggae Album
- Shabba Ranks for As Raw as Ever
Best Traditional Pop Performance
- Natalie Cole for "Unforgettable"
Lifetime Achievement Award
- James Brown
Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America. Tim Wise
How did it begin?
Actually, it's a worldwide negative perception of whites, but why? Well, a quick and simple trip back in history will get the probable answer.
The best way to describe European history would be wars, wars, and more wars.
The Europeans wanted better and pursued a life of civilization as opposed to barbarism. They discovered a tool that would help them with that. It was called Science, which was a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In other words, every single thing would be studied and scrutinized.
Foolishly, church leaders of that day welcomed science, but it would eventually become a direct enemy of humanity's maker.
Because science would teach the ordinary person to believe in themselves and the intellectual powers, they possess as opposed to an All Mighty Creator. Because the Creator of the universe is mathematically correct, once these early scientists were able to figure equations for themselves in regards to nature, they felt there were like a god. Science would also teach the world to exist because of a Big Bang theory and evolution, instead of being created.
Did these early Europeans belief in science affect the Negro?
Absolutely! It affected all tribal nature human beings. Whites collectively proclaimed themselves superior and this is where the trouble started for the rest of humankind. The Europeans were much smarter and more advanced than tribal communities. Millions of Negroes and other races lost their lives and suffered much because of science.
Before slavery, the Negro had been isolated from the rest of the world for many years due to the humongous Sahara Desert to the North and the Arab slave traders to the East made it tough if not impossible to travel. They weren't able to share in the new learning discoveries the world were experiencing. These people were a group lost in time, away from the modern world.
Once the Portuguese got the slave trade started with the entire world, the scientist had an opportunity to scrutinize and evaluate the lowly Negro, and I have to warn you right now it wasn't pretty.
An illustration from the influential American magazine Harper's Weekly shows an alleged similarity between "Irish Iberian" and "Negro" features in contrast to the higher "Anglo-Teutonic." The accompanying caption reads "The Iberians are believed to have been originally an African race, which thousands of years ago spread themselves through Spain over Western Europe. Their remains are found in the barrows, or burying places, in various parts of these countries. The skulls are of a small prognathous type. They came to Ireland and mixed with the natives of the South and West, who themselves are supposed to have been of small type and descendants of savages of the Stone Age, who, in consequence of isolation from the rest of the world, had never been out-competed in the healthy struggle of life, and thus made way, according to the laws of nature, for superior races." (this is an Harper's Weekly assessment of race, not ours) photo#101-yr-2015
The following excerpts are scientist views of the Negro back then:
Charles White (17281813), an English physician and surgeon, believed that races occupied different stations in the "Great Chain of Being," and he tried to scientifically prove that human races have distinct origins from each other. He believed that Whites and Negroes were two different species. White was a believer in polygeny, the idea that different races had been created separately.
Immanuel Kant (17241804) was a German philosopher who said "The yellow Indians do have a little talent. The Negroes are far below them, and at the lowest point are a part of the American people".
Franz Ignaz Pruner (18081882) was a medical doctor who studied the racial structure of Negroes in Egypt. In a book which he wrote in 1846, he claimed that Negro blood had a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character. He argued that the main feature of the Negro's skeleton is prognathism, which he claimed was the Negro's relation to the ape. He also argued that Negroes had very similar brains to apes and that Negros have a shortened big toe, which is a characteristic connecting Negroes closely to apes.
Carl Linnaeus (17071778), the Swedish physician, botanist, and zoologist says The Afer or Africanus: black, phlegmatic, relaxed; black, frizzled hair; silky skin, flat nose, tumid lips; females without shame; mammary glands give milk abundantly; crafty, sly, careless; anoints himself with grease; and regulated by will.
Scottish lawyer Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-1782) was a polygenist: he believed God had created different races on Earth in separate regions. In his 1734 book Sketches on the History of Man, Home claimed that the environment, climate, or state of society could not account for racial differences, so the races must have come from distinct, separate stocks.
Charles Darwin (1809 19 April 1882) apparently believed that the struggle for existence among humans would result in racial extermination. In Descent of Man he asserted, "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.
When comparing Caucasians to Negroes, Voltaire (1694 1778) compared them to different breeds of dog:
The Negro race is a species of men different from ours as the breed of spaniels is from that of greyhounds. The mucous membrane, or network, which Nature has spread between the muscles and the skin, is white in us and black or copper-colored in them.
Benjamin Rush (17451813), a Founding Father of the United States and a physician, proposed that being black was a hereditary skin disease, which he called "negroidism," and that it could be cured. Rush believed non-whites were white underneath, but they were stricken with a non-contagious form of leprosy which darkened their skin color. Rush drew the conclusion that "Whites should not tyrannize over [blacks], for their disease should entitle them to a double portion of humanity. However, by the same token, whites should not intermarry with them, for this would tend to infect posterity with the 'disorder'... attempts must be made to cure the disease.
The German anatomist Johann Blumenbach (17521840) was a believer in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. He also believed in the "degeneration theory" of racial backgrounds. He said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor dieting and believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race. According to Blumenbach, there are five races, all belonging to a single species: Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, and Malay. Blumenbach said: I have allotted the first place to the Caucasian because this stock displays the most beautiful race of men.
O.K. O.K., enough already! I told you it wasn't going to be pretty.
The beliefs these so-called scholars had is the single most reason why millions of Negroes were tortured, murdered and raped throughout history. Scientist published their findings as fact and people all over the world believed them.
But we wonder what the scientist would say if alive today with access to a computer, and visit Google to type in the key phrase "African immigrants in college" they would discover that these same Africans out-perform academically
every single race in America's colleges.
That's interesting, but what does it prove?
It proves that intelligence is not dependent on skin color or race, but instead access to education and a fertile mind to receive instruction. In America, slavery happened years ago but damaged and demoralized the fertile minds of many black Americans, and continues down to this day. There are some blacks who think of education and learning as a white thing and don't want anything to do with it, now if that's not an effect of slavery I don't know what is.
Doesn't It boggles the mind that these so-called superior, intelligent and civilized humans didn't for one time think to share their knowledge of enlightenment with the world so all could live a better life, be happy and progress? No, sadly these people chose to claim white superiority, to dominate and to kill weaker ones similar to the barbarian way of life they came. An example of this is with Colonialism.
What is Colonialism?
Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.
In other words a much powerful nation sets up shop in a weaker nation by force and robs the resources and forces the natives to work as slaves for little or no pay while grossly benefiting from unequal trade activities while depositing profits to it's mother country.
Colonial rule in the Belgian Congo began in the late 19th century under King Leopold II
of Belgium. Leopold exploited the Congo for its natural resources, first ivory and later rubber which was becoming a valuable commodity. The regime in the Congo was responsible for using forced labor, murder and mutilation to force native Congolese
who did not fulfill quotas for rubber collections. It's estimated millions of Congolese
died during this time.
Colonialism demoralized the native population making Europe stronger and Africa weaker. Even though many white nations participated, non-Europeans nations included, the United Kingdom was the king in this horrible act against humanity.
Because of whites belief in science aided with their secondary faith in religion, they felt they were obligated to save and civilize the world. Google "White man's Burden" for proof of this belief, and by the way our United States President Teddy Roosevelt loved the White Man's Burden theory.
Whites tend to have a poor memory in regards to their crimes against humanity, but the other nations who suffered through it haven't forgotten, because just like the effects of slavery still lingers for blacks in America, people who suffered through colonialism still feel the pain and can see with their literal eye the destruction it left behind.
There isn't any denying that science has also helped make our lives better, but the responsibility that goes along with it is simply too much for humans to handle. Whites did not temper science with love and common sense. Just look around the world today, and you would probably agree we are on the brink of destruction with pollution, nuclear weapons, degradation of the earth, etc. are all products of science. The bad far outweigh the good.
Early science also taught Europeans it was man's nature to compete. In fact, they felt it was healthy and natural to compete to create superior human beings, especially white ones. This erroneous belief about competition would go on to be the largest difference in European and African cultures.
Whites brought these competitive qualities and attitudes with them from Europe. Africans were totally opposite because in their homeland everything was shared and done for the tribal community. There wasn't an I in Africa, it was US.
Blacks played an enormous role in the building of this country, even with hands tied behind their backs but were not welcome to participate. Whites felt that it just didn't look and feel right for blacks to be associated with superior whites in the building of America.
So white Americans kidnapped the U.S. Constitution and created laws (Jim Crow) to keep things entirely separate and achieved like crazy in all aspects of life, and boasting white superiority.
It has not been proven that competitiveness is better than teamwork. View this small list of words associated with competitiveness out of the dictionary and you'll have to agree this is the state of America today.
aggressive, brutal, cutthroat, every person for themselves, fierce, merciless, ruthless, unmerciful, vicious, voracious, without mercy,
adverse, alien, argumentative, belligerent, bitter, cold, contentious, contrary, disapproving, dour, hateful, ill-disposed, inhospitable,
inimical, malevolent, malicious, malignant, militant, nasty, ornery, pugnacious, rancorous, scrappy, sour, spiteful, unfriendly, unkind,
unpropitious, unsociable, unsympathetic, unwelcoming, viperous, warlike.
More and more blacks have developed this competitive and lofty spirit and probably will soon look down on others as well, even within our race. Ole Blue Eyes, who was a great singer and real American who viewed each human being as equal had an incredible grip on the situation about the division between blacks and whites. Check out what he said below.
One of the greatest entertainers of all times, Frank Sinatra once made a quote about the damaging effects of ones who subscribe to white superiority whether covertly or overtly.
"We've got a hell of a long way to go in this racial situation. As long as most white men think of a Negro first and a man second, we're in trouble. I don't know why we can't grow up."
Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, and straight-leg jeans
Double breasted power suit with large shoulder pads
A classic dark blue pair of Converse All-Stars resting on the Black & White Ed. Shoebox
Jheri curl hairstyle worn in the 80s and 90s.
A medium-length hi-top fade haircut
| Fashions and Styles in 1992 |
The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion: women wore denim button down shirts, leggings, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, and skater dresses. Popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, leggings, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers. Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, young women and women. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white slouch socks and white sneakers especially Keds. Women's fashion in the mid 1990s became more feminine and form-fitting. Women tended to dress differently for each occasion. Both long and short skirts were favored, and loungewear generally consisted of leggings, large T-shirts, and baggy sweaters while at home or relaxing during the weekends.The most common look among young women was the short black slip dress worn over a tight, undersized white T-shirt. Among other fashion trends included lean pants, hot pants, black Lycra leggings, belted trench coats, and leather. Popular shoes and accessories during the mid-1990s included Wonderbra, Loafers, Mary Janes, suede sneakers, mules, clogs, knee high boots, jelly shoes, Go-go boots, black shoes, silver jewelry, dainty earrings and necklaces, conch shell necklaces,Slap bracelets, berets, straw hats, floppy hats, gold jewelry, and hipster belts. Navel piercings had started to gain popularity around this time.
Continuing on from the late 1980s, many young men wore tapered high waisted jeans with matching denim jackets, Stone Island or Ralph Lauren polo shirts with contrasting collars, short Harrington jackets, brightly colored windcheaters, Hush Puppies shoes, V neck sweaters, soccer shorts, pastel colored three button sportcoats, graphic print T shirts, tracksuit tops with a vertical contrasting stripe down the sleeve, sweatpants, shiny red or blue rayon monkey jackets, grey or tan leather jackets with shoulder pads, and wool baseball jackets with contrasting sleeves. Short shorts were popular in the early years of the decade, but were replaced with looser and baggier basketball shorts after 1993 when hip-hop fashion went mainstream. Hip-hop fashion went mainstream in 1995, with oversized baseball jackets, baggy jeans, bomber jackets, Baja Jackets, and tracksuits popular among young men as casual wear. Simultaneously, industrial and military styles crept into mainstream fashion, with machinery pieces becoming accessories. Baseball caps started being worn forwards again.
Southern hip hop provided a platform for Fashion designers and musical artists to collaborate forming an influential subculture of anti fashion and alternative fashion designs, especially the popular recycled clothing worn by Arrested Development and Goodie Mob.
Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.
The Jheri curl often spelled Jerry curl or Jeri Curl is a permed hairstyle that was common and popular among African American, Black Canadian, and Black British, especially during the 1980s and the 1990s. Invented by the hairdresser Jheri Redding, the Jheri curl gave the wearer a glossy, loosely curled look. It was touted as a "wash and wear" style that was easier to care for than the other popular chemical treatment of the day, the relaxer. A hi-top fade is a style of haircut where hair on the sides is cut off or kept very short while hair on the top of the head is very long (in contrast, a low fade is a style where hair on the top is kept shorter). It was common among young black people between 1985 and 1993. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1990s
James Presley Ball, Sr.
Lionel Hampton at the Aquarium, New York
| Our Community in 1992 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- July 19, 1992 - Beautiful and talented Ebony P Warren was crowned the 24th Miss Black America.
- April 26, 1992 - Writer Alex Haley wins the 1992 Ellis Island Award.
- September 12, 1992 Dr. Mae Carol Jemison becomes the first African American woman in space when she travels on board the space shuttle Endeavor.
- In 1992, Swann Galleries sold an 1851 daguerreotype by James Presley Ball, Sr. of three storefronts in Cincinnati for $63,800, which set a world record at the time for highest price paid for a daguerreotype at auction. Trivia:A daguerreotype or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly announced photographic process and for nearly twenty years was the one most commonly used. It was introduced in 1839.
- 1992 - Musician Lionel Hampton was inducted into the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame.
- 1990s - The United States Population is 248,709,878 with a total of 29,986,060 being African Americans.
#100 - Public Domain image -
By VOA News [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By SPC MICHAEL HALGREN (http://www.dodmedia.osd.mil.) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By United States Congress [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Casablanca Records (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Annie Leibovitz / Released by White House Photo Office (The Official White House Photostream ) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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By Master Sgt. Cecilio Ricardo, U.S. Air Force [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
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