blast from the past

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1978:
Thelonious Monk
    Thelonious Monk was an American jazz pianist and composer. Monk had a unique improvisational style and made numerous contributions to the standard jazz repertoire, including "'Round Midnight," "Blue Monk," "Straight, No Chaser" "Ruby, My Dear," "In Walked Bud," and "Well, You Needn't."

    Monk is the second-most recorded jazz composer after Duke Ellington, which is particularly remarkable as Ellington composed more than 1,000 pieces, whereas Monk wrote about 70.

    His compositions and improvisations feature dissonances and angular melodic twists and are consistent with Monk's unorthodox approach to the piano, which combined a highly percussive attack with abrupt, dramatic use of silences and hesitations.

    In the early to mid-1940s, Monk was the house pianist at Minton's Playhouse, a Manhattan nightclub. Much of Monk's style was developed during his time at Minton's when he participated in after-hours "cutting competitions" which featured many leading jazz soloists of the time.

    He was renowned for his distinctive style in suits, hats, and sunglasses. He was also noted for an idiosyncratic habit observed at times during performances: while the other musicians in the band continued playing, he would stop, stand up from the keyboard, and dance for a few moments before returning to the piano.

    Monk was hospitalized on several occasions due to an unspecified mental illness that worsened in the late 1960s. No reports or diagnoses were ever publicized, but Monk would often become excited for two or three days, pace for days after that, after which he would withdraw and stop speaking.

    Monk is one of five jazz musicians to have been featured on the cover of Time, after Louis Armstrong, Dave Brubeck, and Duke Ellington, and before Wynton Marsalis.

    Monk was admired all over the world, even though there were some who didn't appreciate his unique musical abilities. Forget them. We were proud regardless being able to witness this jazz giant making history and providing a beat to groove.

    An amazing thing about African American musicians is that it really wasn't that long ago our ancestors arrived from Africa to America, and now dominating the music scene which goes to show that all humans, no matter the color possess talents and skills. We would like to take this opportunity to award this legend's memory with the 1978 Hamite Award. Thanks Thelonious.

    Thelonious Monk died of a stroke on February 17, 1982, and was buried in Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York. In 1993, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

Thelonious Monk
Thelonious Monk
photo #107-yr-1947



Thelonious Monk
Thelonious Monk, Howard McGhee, Roy Eldridge, and Teddy Hill, Minton's Playhouse, New York, N.Y., ca.
Sept. 1947 (Photograph by William P. Gottlieb)

photo #119-yr-1978



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How were blacks feeling in 1978?
happy mood of blacks



Many whites in America hate affirmative action,
Even Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas agreed.
What Do You Think?
Does America need to counterbalance it's historic inequalities?
Hell no, cause they don't care. Make do Blackie!



Conservative Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, the only current black Justice, opposes affirmative action. He believes the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment forbids consideration of race, such as race-based affirmative action or preferential treatment. He also believes it creates "a cult of victimization" and implies blacks require "special treatment to succeed." Thomas also cites his experiences of affirmative action programs as a reason for his criticism. Analysis: During his budding career, Thomas was characterized as "openly ambitious for higher office" during his tenure at the EEOC. As Chairman, he promoted a doctrine of self-reliance, and halted the usual EEOC approach of filing class-action discrimination lawsuits. He also asserted in 1984 that black leaders were "watching the destruction of our race" as they "bitch, bitch, bitch" about President Reagan instead of working with the Reagan administration to alleviate teenage pregnancy, unemployment, and illiteracy.

Did he have a point?

Perhaps Clarence Thomas' viewpoint is just what blacks need at this point in the journey. Think about it for a moment. Since slavery ended, many blacks hadn't learned how to become self-reliant in a racist society which was unjust and unfair but nevertheless blacks had to master the life skills needed for American survival. Could we afford to continue with the give me, give me lifestyle our ancestors endured during slavery? This dependency was a disease that needed to be rooted out with some tough love. After the Civil Rights movement, Thomas is saying for blacks to take, take, take what belongs to you and don't wait for the white man to give it to us. Thomas himself had worked himself up from the bottom and practiced what he preached. We have to care about ourselves now, cause whites are not going to take care of us is what Thomas is saying, even though we still must face discrimination and exclusion we must find a way to succeed against all the odds which will make our collective victory much more pleasing. I get his point.

But government sometimes treat its citizens wrong and provide compensation, a look at Japanese-American citizens who were interned in concentration camps during WWII and paid restitution. Blacks endured decades of mistreatment but ignored in the compensation department. Blacks were definitely owed something because he mentioned "a cult of victimization," and if blacks were not victims, I don't know who were.

photo#120/121-yr-1978

Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas



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Tommie Smith  and John Carlos black power salute
Tommie Smith and John Carlos
Three Proud People mural in Newtown photo #109

DID YOU KNOW?
    Ever wonder how the term "African American" came into existence? After the civil rights movement, blacks felt the need for a more accurate term to describe the race than colored or Negro, which was associated with much pain and suffering. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, blacks no longer approved of the term Negro. In its experimental stages the term Afro-American was used for a while but didn't last. Later the Black Power movement made us feel proud using black as the term in describing our race.

    The song, "Say It Loud – I'm Black, and I'm Proud" by James Brown became an unofficial anthem of the Black Power movement. But it wasn't until the 1980s the term African American was advanced on the model of, for example, German-American or Irish-American to give descendants of American slaves and other American blacks who lived through the slavery era a heritage and a cultural base. The term was popularized in black communities around the country via word of mouth and ultimately received mainstream use after Jesse Jackson publicly used the term in front of a national audience. Subsequently, major media outlets adopted its use.

Proud to be African American


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blacks and basketball

Garry Lee Maddox
Garry Lee Maddox
photo #104-yr-1949

Larry Holmes
Larry Holmes
photo #122-yr-1978

      Sports in 1978
  • September 15, 1978 Muhammad Ali becomes the first boxer ever to win the heavyweight championship three times when he defeats Leon Spinks

  • June 9, 1978 - Boxer Larry Holmes defeats Ken Norton in 15 rounds for the heavyweight boxing title.

  • Baseball's Garry Maddox aka (Secretary of Defense) wins the 1978 National League Gold Gloves.



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What Was The Jonestown Massacre?


cult leader jim jones

The Peoples Temple, the organization at the center of the Jonestown incident, was headquartered in San Francisco, California, from the early to mid-1970s until the Temple's move to Guyana.

While the Temple originated in Indiana in the 1950s, after leader Jim Jones predicted an apocalypse that would create a socialist Eden on earth, it moved to Redwood Valley, California in the late 1960s. Its headquarters later moved into San Francisco, where Jones remained until July 1977, when Jones fled with almost 1,000 Temple members to Jonestown, Guyana following investigations by local media.

On the evening of November 18, 1978 in Jonestown, Jones ordered his congregation to drink cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. In all, 918 people died, including over 270 children, resulting in the greatest single loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the incidents of September 11, 2001. Congressman Leo Ryan was among those killed at the airstrip.




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black leaders ashamed of our progress


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WAR ON BLACKS, OR ALSO KNOWN AS WAR ON DRUGS

Mass Incarceration


law and order
Convicts Leased to Harvest Timber, around 1915, Florida
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Convicts_Leased_to_Harvest_Timber.png
(public domain image)


    The more things change, the more they stay the same


Shortly after slavery, blacks were thrown into prison for petty and minor offenses which resulted in long sentences. It was big business for the penitentiary because they would hire these convicts out for various jobs and keep blacks off the streets at the same time. They killed two birds with one stone.


It was a form of bondage that did not last a lifetime and did not automatically extend from one generation to the next. But it was nonetheless slavery – a system in which armies of free men, guilty of no crimes and entitled by law to freedom, were compelled to labor without compensation, were repeatedly bought and sold, and were forced to do the bidding of white masters through the regular application of extraordinary physical coercion.


This form of slavery was abolished by President Franklin D. Roosevelt December 12, 1941.


Is the criminal justise system much different today?


President Richard Nixon started the modern day Law and Order campaign of the War on Drugs. President Ronald Reagan would continue with the program in his administration, and later President Bill Clinton during his term created tough mandatory sentencing that unfairly affected blacks.

Crack cocaine was associated with poor blacks because it was a cheap drug and in contrast with powder cocaine which was considered a white man's drug because it was more expensive. Neither drug was more deadly than the other, but crack was demonized because it was associated with black people.

While a person found with five grams of crack cocaine faced a five-year mandatory minimum prison sentence, a person holding powder cocaine could receive the same sentence only if he or she held five hundred grams. Similarly, those carrying ten grams of crack cocaine faced a ten-year mandatory sentence, while possession of one thousand grams of powder cocaine was required for the same sentence to be imposed.

Don't get it wrong, these were very well ORGANIZED methods from anti-Americans in control of our country to hold blacks down and is very well documented. It seems these anti-Americans are always reinventing themselves in ways of oppressing black citizens. Perhaps they should show some love for a change instead of acting on their imagined fear.


WHO IS THIS MAN?


John Ehrlichman


John Ehrlichman who was counsel to President Richard Nixon and would later become a criminal himself with his involvement in the Watergate scandal made the following comment about the reason for Nixon's war on drugs:

“The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.”



Check these statistics out

One of every three black American males born today can expect to go to prison in his lifetime. While black defendants account for roughly 80% of those arrested for crack-related offenses, public health data has found that two-thirds of crack cocaine users are white or Hispanic. The leading cause of incarceration of an African American male is a non-violent drug offense. Most black men in prisons are not monsters but just got caught up in the system for a non-violent mistake they may have made.

These stats are for the years 1970 - 2010



1 in every 106 White males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 36 Hispanic males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order



1 in every 15 Black males age 18 or older is incarcerated
law and order


    We have to help our black boys because nobody else cares. Wouldn't it be nice if today's blacks possessed the same gumption our African American ancestors had by taking control of our destiny as a race of people? It seems ever since the end of slavery we are always pointing out to the white man how unfair and unjust he has treated us. Don't you think he knows that? What do we expect them to do, start crying and say I'm sorry and start treating us like fellow Americans by sharing freely? Don't hold your breath.


    At this point in history, it's clear we must begin to work on ourselves more than anything else. We've probably gone just about as far as we can go with the protesting/marching strategy which was an excellent choice over the decades, but now it's time for action on our part. MLK would have likely said the same thing.


    A very unpopular message for many blacks who live with the self-pity attitude but the only avenue available for American success. Can you imagine how much it would lift our race if every single black boy possessed a college degree? It's a dream that could become a reality if we believed it.


    Education plays the significant role in American success for blacks and any group of blacks in a position of authority such as sports figures, entertainers, singers, etc. that teaches the opposite by their examples we should run away from them as fast as possible. Sadly, these groups are the ones that many blacks look up to for guidance instead of our black educators.


    When one of us climbs the very challenging and racist ladder of success in the American power structure by using our God-given brain power we will not forget about those we left behind, but instead will help other blacks do the same by extending a hand until we find ourselves in a position of directing instead of always asking and begging.


    Our ancestors knew we could do it and we have to believe it too. We are from some of the strongest and finest stock that is known to humankind and should set the example for all dark skinned people over the entire earth simply because we are in a position to do so and live in the greatest country in the world. Our story is one of the greatest ever told. We are AmazingBlacks.



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america' last chance
america' last chance


Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All

It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.


But within the time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these people to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.


But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.


Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?


Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.


Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.


So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.


But in time things would change, and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.


Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.


Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.


But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.


america' last chance


Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.


Is America at the crossroad?

Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.


Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice, and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.


america' last chance


Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and ultimately fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.


america' last chance






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ballot box

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
photo #110-yr-1976

Black Liberation Army


Weather Underground

     Political Scene in 1978
  • 1978 - Jimmy Carter an American politician, author, and member of the Democratic Party who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. He was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter Center.

  • 1978 - Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. It upheld affirmative action, allowing race to be one of the several factors in college admission policy. However, the court ruled that specific quotas, such as the 16 out of 100 seats set aside for minority students by the University of California, Davis School of Medicine, were impermissible. Analysis: This website has done a year by year study of the American Negro in relation to his Constitutional rights starting with emancipation in 1863. It was a horrible journey for blacks who were victims of cruel hate and injustice not only to most white Americans but yes even the Surpreme Court. Ruling after ruling went against the black person, even though it was very obvious they were unfair. This mistreatment of black American citizens denied them the opportunity to contribute to America's success and to prosper the same as whites. Blacks were without a doubt treated like second class citizens until communism became a world issue with communist making bold claims that democracy was a farce because of the way America treated its black citizens. Only then did we see positive movement in the Supreme Courts decisions regarding the American Negro rights, to protect white America's image as a land of justice and fair play. FARCE But by then, countless blacks were left demoralized and defeated by the brutal legal system (Jim Crow) which the whites and courts of America sanctioned. Black people clearly understood that the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence were not to blame, which are beautiful ideals. It was the racist white leaders who hijacked our laws and ideals for their selfish gain to the detriment of American black citizens. During this period in the 70s after our Civil Rights had been restored, It would have made a nice gesture with affirmative action policy, if only temporary. It would have shown goodwill. Whites fought tooth and nail against affirmative action. What does this mean? It simply means many whites don't feel empathy or compassion for the American black person. They represent the racist element of this country who continue to divide the races today, and if you honestly think about what America means and stands for,, there are no way theses ones can be called Americans.

  • May 1, 1978 - Ernest Morial who is the very first African American mayor of New Orleans is inaugurated.

  • November 7, 1978 - Marion Barry Jr. is elected as Washington, D.C.'s first African American mayor.

  • 1978 - The Black Liberation Army was an underground, black nationalist militant organization that operated in the United States from 1970 to 1981. Composed largely of former Black Panthers (BPP), the agency's program was one of "armed struggle" against the oppression and tyranny of the U.S. Government, and its stated goal was to "take up arms for the liberation and self-determination of black people in the United States." The BLA carried out a series of bombings, murders, robberies (which participants termed "expropriations"), and prison breaks.

  • 1978 - Weather Underground was a white American militant radical left-wing organization founded on the Ann Arbor campus of the University of Michigan. In 1970 the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government, under the name "Weather Underground Organization." Their bombing campaign targeted mostly government buildings, along with several banks and called for a "white fighting force" to be allied with the "Black Liberation Movement" and other radical movements to achieve "the destruction of U.S. imperialism and achieve a classless world: world communism". The Weathermen began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973 and became defunct by the mid-seventies.



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black feminist movement


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get your drink on
Getting Faded in the 70s

Long Islands Iced Tea
The Long Island Iced Tea was named for its resemblance to non-alcoholic Iced tea.
photo #101-yr-1979

The Manhattans
Having fun with my peoples, getting faded and blastin The Manhattans
photo #105c-yr-1979

having fun in the 70s
Eating, drinkin and having fun in the 70s
photo #library

     Getting Faded and Having Fun in 1978
    For some people back in the 70s, it was nothing better than hanging out with your peoples, talking smack or quietly listening, laughing and getting faded on the following feel good liquors:

    Wines:
  • Ripple
  • TJ Swan
  • Cisco
  • Wild Irish Rose
  • Boone's Farm

  • Thunderbird -- "What's the word? Thunderbird, How's it sold? Good and cold, What's the jive? Bird's alive, What's the price? Thirty twice."

  • Tingle
  • MD 20/20
  • Night Train
  • Tango
  • Cold Duck

  • MD 20/20
    photo#112

    Beers:
  • Colt 45
  • Rainier
  • Old English
  • Schlitz Malt


  • Hard Liquor:
  • Korbel Brandy
  • E & J Brandy
  • Gin and Grapefruit Juice
  • Tequila Sunrise
  • Screwdrivers
  • Bacardi Cocktail
  • Daiquiri
  • Pina Colada


  • Cigarettes:
  • Kool
  • Salem


  • Tequila Sunrise
    Tequila Sunrise garnished
    with orange & cherry
    photo#114a


    I still have a headache, but had a blast!


    Don't forget those wild and loud games of dominoes with folks slamming bones on the table and running off at the mouth. Here are some of the trash words being said:

    dominoes
    Dominoes
    photo#library


  • HEY! hit me five times
  • Who dat knocking at my door?
  • Fish and bread keep po' men fed
  • All money ain't good money
  • Beef steak and gravy
  • Ten keys, come and get some of these
  • 4 hoes and a pimp
  • 3 switchin bitches
  • Rock and I'm out


  • Can't have fun without those beats, these are the songs that were blasting on the turntable in 1978 while enjoying ourselves:

    music in the 70s
    Beats in the 70s   - photo#library

  • Boogie Oogie Oogie, A Taste Of Honey
  • Three Times a Lady, The Commodores
  • Too Little, Too Late, Mathis, Williams
  • Last Dance , Donna Summer
  • Closer I Get to You, Flack and Hathaway
  • Use Ta Be My Girl, The O'Jays
  • Our Love, Natalie Cole
  • On Broadway, George Benson
  • Back in Love Again, L.T.D.
  • Shame, Evelyn "Champagne" King
  • You and I, Rick James
  • Serpentine Fire, Earth, Wind Fire
  • Flashlight, Parliament


  • WOW! I miss 1978



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slang and memorable quotes
slang african americans      sLANG tALK in 1978
  • Do Your Own Thing!  - whatever pleases you
  • Be yourself!  - don't be a fake
  • Do what you want to do  - whatever pleases you
  • Laid Back  - taking it easy, relaxed
  • Psyche  - excited, energized
  • The Crib and going to the Gig  - home
  • The Gig  - job
  • Dream On  - hopeful
  • Kicks   - shoes
  • Mackin   - gettin the girls
  • Off The Hook  - extra cool
  • Old School   - old fashioned
  • Pad  - home
  • In Your Face!  - victory
  • That's Sick!  - awesome
  • The Man  - police
  • To The Max  - maximum
  • Yo Mama  - term of endearment, joking around
  • Chill   - take it easy
  • Feel Tha Funk   - groove and feel the music
  • Catch My Drift   - do you understand?
  • Chillaxin   - relaxing
  • Chump  - punk
  • Copasetic   - something cool, hip
  • Don't Bogart  - don't hold the joint too long, pass it around
  • Doobie   - a joint
  • Dude   - a guy
  • For Rizzle   - I didn't know that
  • Foxy   - sexy girl
  • Gimme Five  - cool handshake
  • Hood   - a ghetto person
  • Trippin   - going wacko
  • Pig  - police
  • Pimpin   - a guy good with the ladies
  • Dig It  - understand
  • Backatcha!   - you too
  • Brick House  - super fine woman
  • Can You Dig It  - you understand?
  • Right On   - agree
  • Stone Groove  - extra cool and fun


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starting fresh in life


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black Movies in America

Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs
Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs from Welcome back Kotter Fame
photo #106-yr-1975

 Danielle Spencer
Danielle Spencer of What's Happening!!
photo #106-yr-1965

Isabel Sanford
Isabel Sanford with The Jeffersons co-stars, Sherman Hemsley and Mike Evans
photo #105-yr-1917

Eubie Blake
Eubie Blake
photo #105-yr-1883

Musicals / Movies / Television in 1978

    Movies:
  • The Wiz - Lena Horne (Glinda the Good Witch of the South)

  • Blue Collar - is a 1978 American crime drama film

  • California Suite - the film focuses on the dilemmas of guests staying in a suite in a luxury hotel



  • Musicals:
    Ain't Misbehavin' a musical revue to the black musicians of the 1920s and '30s who were part of the Harlem Renaissance, an era of growing creativity, cultural awareness, and ethnic pride wins at the Tony Awards.


    Television:
  • The Jeffersons - is an black sitcom that was broadcast on CBS from January 18, 1975, through July 2, 1985. The show focuses on George and (weezy) Louise Jefferson, an affluent African-American couple living in New York City. Proud George loved his family, little man carried a big stick and wasn't afraid of anybody. Movin on Up!

  • What's Happening!! - was a television show that aired from 1976-1979. It was a show everyone could relate to. Roger, Dywayne and Rerun were your normal teenagers getting themselves in a jam most of the time about something, and smart mouth Dee always sayin I'm gonna tell my mama! Most episodes focused on the goals of teenage males: meeting girls, finding afterschool jobs, and planning for the future.

  • 1978 - Max Robinson becomes the first African American network anchor when he begins broadcasting for ABC-TV News from Chicago.

  • Welcome Back Kotter - who could forget those crazy "Sweathogs" always into something bad? Their wisecracking teacher Mr. Kotter, played by Gabe Kaplan would have us dying laughing with his corny sense of humor. Vinnie Barbarino played by (John Travolta) went on to become an excellent actor. The rest of the characters were Arnold Horshack (Ron Palillo), Juan Luis Pedro Felipo de Huevos Epstein, played by (Robert Hegyes), Julie Kotter played by (Marcia Strassman), The vice-principle Michael Woodman played by (John Sylvester White) and last but not least Mr. Soul Brother himself, Freddie "Boom Boom" Percy Washington, played by Lawrence Hilton-Jacobs. The show aired 1975-1979. (Welcome Back Kotter Trivia)  Local ABC affiliate in Boston didn't want to air the show because the city was going through a period of school busing and there was a lot of rioting and protest going on. As you know, Welcome back Kotter had an integrated classroom, and they didn't want to make the white public feel like they were rubbing this in their faces. But after early success from the show, the affiliate jumped aboard around the 5th episode.


    Blaxploitation Films:
    movies that emerged in the United States in the 1970s targeted for black audiences
  • Death Dimension:  an action and martial arts film by Al Adamson starring Jim Kelly, Harold Sakata, George Lazenby, Terry Moore, and Aldo Ray.



  • Awards:
  • Eubie Blake   The musical Eubie!, which opened on Broadway in 1978, featured his works.





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why do others dislike black people

"It is worthy of emphasis, that the antiquity of the Negro race is beyond dispute. His brightest days were when history was an infant; and, since he early turned from God, he has found the cold face of hate and the hurtful hand of the Caucasian against him."   George Washington Williams


How did it begin?

It's a worldwide negative perception of blacks.

But why?

Well, a quick and straightforward trip back in history will get the likely answer. The Arab trade of Zanj (Bantu) slaves in Southeast Africa predated the European transatlantic slave trade by 700 years but it wasn't until the Portuguese sailed to West Africa in search of gold and discovered something much more valuable, (slaves) and shared with the world what they encountered that aided in the bad rap on blacks.


good black americans
During the transatlantic slave trade the African empires of Benin, Dahomey, and Yoruba were very powerful. From these kingdoms, more than from any other part of Africa were the people sold into American slavery.


These kingdoms had many districts with different tribes and clans who always fought against each other. These tribes were illiterate without a written form, passing their history to the next generation orally. They were blissfully ignorant of the world around them. As with all people of a tribal nature, they lived within the limits and respect of the land and were very content in doing so.


Europeans considered the Africans pagans because most tribes were involved with witchcraft, idol worship, cannibalism, superstition, female genital mutilation, and human sacrifices just to name a few of their foolish practices. Europeans thought of themselves as being illuminators to the world made in the image of God which in their minds was white and holy.


Before Christianity took place in Europe, whites believed in a different form of worship which was called mythology, but in time came to their senses with the help of a man named Thales who would later become known as the father of science. Thales was the first person in human history to dispel mythology and would usher in a new way of thinking which was based on facts which in its beginning was called Natural philosophy, and later would be called science. Science would eventually take mythology's place in the way white people believed. Goodbye Jupiter and Neptune.


Thales studied, recorded and compared facts laying the foundation for science. In time, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle would go on to perfect the methods of science. Over the centuries with this wealth of new knowledge discoveries with the aid of science, you can probably imagine how this had to elevate the Europeans ego and self-worth in themselves.


good black americans


Before long they would claim white superiority, and many began even to doubt the existence of a God. So by the time the Portuguese made their arrival to Africa, they were smarter and better educated than blacks and of course dominated as they pleased.


Africans were still living in the past in a fast changing world and were no match for the very greedy and violent Europeans. Africans had seen the last of their glory days. It's a documented fact the Africans were the beginning of human innovation. Other races would go on to copy and perfect their existing creations, scientifically.


If you study ancient history and technological achievements which were in many ways the equal of, or superior of, much that we have today, were founded and carried to a high technological proficiency by Hamitic (African) people. This is the role in history given by God to the descendants of Ham. The Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Mayans, the Aztecs, all were Hamitic people. They were the great inventors of mankind. http://www.ldolphin.org/ntable.html


Why were the African people a no-show in technological discoveries other nations around the world were experiencing?


It wasn't because Africans weren't capable of learning. Type the key phrase into Google "African immigrants in college" you will discover the same lineage of Sub-Saharan Africans today out-perform all races in America's colleges academically. Skin color doesn't matter when it comes to learning; it was because of conditions beyond their control.


Africans couldn't share and contribute information with other nations during this period because of one humongous roadblock. The Sahara Desert. The entire continental United States would fit inside the Sahara Desert with plenty of room to spare. This desert spanned from west to east of Northern Africa and continued to grow, making it very dangerous and challenging for travel.


Sub Saharan Africans were landlocked, lost in time away from all other humanity. The Sahara Desert wasn't always a desert, but slowly grew to be that way. Cave drawings have been discovered in parts of the Sahara that actually depict the flora as green and thriving.  http://self.gutenberg.org/articles/history_of_west_africa


good black americans

So with Portuguese arriving in Africa with their advanced knowledge they encountered a people lost in time and because of their tribal culture and erroneous Pre-Adamic belief the Portuguese had about black people, these people were labeled ignorant wild beast, incapable of learning and the world agreed.


The Africans had a reputation as a peaceful and lovable people and were considered easy pickings by ruthless and brilliant Europeans who extended no mercy.


science and african americans

With their love for science, whites would constantly compare themselves with blacks. They collectively studied the Negro from the kinks in his hair, size of his brain to the jam in his toenails and declared themselves superior to this lowly ape-like creature.


They believed Africans were the descendants of pre-Adamism races and that the White race was made in the image and likeness of God and that Adam gave birth to the White race only.


They also believed and taught that blacks are not human beings but pre-Adamite beasts and could not possibly have been made in God's image and likeness because they are beastlike, immoral and ugly. Whites also claimed that the pre-Adamite races such as blacks didn't have souls. The world would be satisfied with their scientific theory they learned with the help of a blatant and racist media. Whites accepted these lies as truth and raised their kids to do the same.


Science, pre-Adamite beliefs, and the media would go on to replace common sense. According to whites, it was the destiny of these black beast to serve whites, and they believed they had God's backing. Some of the things they wrote as fact about the Negro would go on to cause many innocent deaths.


Typical American Newspaper Article Of Yesteryear

racist media

The above article was an editorial reply to another editor that was published in the Cayton's weekly., January 25, 1919, (Seattle, Wash.) http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn87093353/1919-01-25/ed-1/seq-1/


More than anything else science, pre-adamite beliefs and the racist media played an enormous role which perpetuated the negative image of blacks all over the world. The saddest part was when many blacks would believe these false teachings and felt unworthy, ugly and completely worthless as human beings and lived their lives in a useless way and the process was reinforcing these negative views.


Once in America the following comment gives insight into how whites viewed the Negro in the 1700s during colonial days.


Speaking on the duties of missionaries in converting the Negro to Christianity in 1784, Bishop Porteus published an extensive plan for the most effectual conversion of the slaves contending that

"despicable as they are in the eyes of man they are, nevertheless, the creatures of God."


When slaves first arrived in America, it wasn't quite agreed what their social status would be because it was supposed to be only temporary until white immigrants could come from other countries to take their place, but it didn't happen that way. This is when slavery slowly became associated with dark skin. Everybody jumped on the bandwagon against the lowly Negro who was considered inhuman and a savage beast.


But because it was later discovered that blacks were capable of learning, it made some bright whites change their negative view, except for white slavemasters who had a financial interest in keeping the Negro uneducated and made it a felony for anyone caught teaching them.


Real Americans soon began to realize blacks were human beings just as they were and started movements to free them from the bondage of slavery.


Writers of that day cite desirable characteristics of blacks, saying they were deeply religious, cheerful, imaginative, patient, courageous, had high physical endurance, affectionate and without vindictiveness, even though living under a brutal slavery system. They hated slavery, but always kept hope alive, waiting for their Judgement Day.


When their Judgement day arrived, how did slaves act once freed?

Imagine if you spent your entire existence depending and working from dawn to dusk for someone else and suddenly set free.


How would you do? 


Who would teach you to read and write, the importance of family, morality, open a bank account, manage your money, how to distinguish between necessity and want, how to keep your house maintained, the importance of honesty in personal and business dealings, how to think big and become self-reliant with confidence and the many more life skills that's needed in society? All would agree that these are crucial life skills to master that the Negro didn't have during slavery.


classy black women


Well, needless to say, many former slaves didn't measure up after freedom, wasting their lives with pleasure seeking and absolutely no ambition at all. These people gave the whole race a bad rap and continued to do so until this day.


But most wanted to learn these life skills and progress. That's why the Reconstruction schools of the 1870s were so important; it was like a halfway or transition house for the blacks into American culture. But of course we know that the U.S. government did away with Reconstruction in 1877 because of pressure from white southerners who didn't want educated blacks in America.


Our achievements have been many since then, so why does the negative image of blacks persist?


It's simple. The negative image of blacks persists around the world because of a lack of compassion and love mainly from non-black people. Even though erroneous beliefs of science and pre-Adamic theories happened centuries ago, hard habits are hard to break. It's entrenched in the hearts of many.


That's really sad, but as American citizens today, how are blacks doing?


Well under the circumstances blacks are doing a fantastic job, and it's a wonder we are still around. We as African-Americans are honing our life skills with increasing precision without the same network or support groups that other races enjoy. We are a unique type of people that don't have a reference point but must learn as we go.


Quite frankly, we are true Americans who continue to accomplish our goals non-violently and completely understand what the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence stands for. Would other races been able to do the same? We are love, always have been and always will be.


violent people


Historically, after being raped, tortured, lynched and murdered with perpetrators enjoying total impunity, the usual reply of blacks were these words, "I forgive you." Even though made out to be the violent savage beast, blacks seldom retaliated. It's true, check your history books. We live for today and as Americans realizing we have this excellent opportunity to excel and soar like the eagles, and we will!



Resources:

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a white officer in the Union army had the task of training colored soldiers in the Civil War. He kept a diary for our enjoyment today. (click here)

George W. Williams - History of the Negro Race in America From 1619 to 1880. (click here)

Europeans Come to Western Africa - (click here)

The Characteristics of the Negro People - (click here)



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famous african american birthdays


Tyrese
Tyrese Gibson
photo credit: Gage Skidmore
photo #101-yr-1978

     Famous Birthdays in 1978
  • January 5, 1978 -  an American actress best known for her lead role as Patience James in the Cinemax TV series Zane's Sex.

  • January 22, 1978 - Desmond DeChone "Chone" Figgins an American professional baseball third baseman and outfielder.

  • February 3, 1978 - Arvie Lowe, Jr.  an American actor.

  • February 18, 1978 - Sy Olivia Smith-Peterson  an American singer, songwriter, musician, actress, and music producer.

  • March 27, 1978 - Dermal Bram "Dee" Brown former professional baseball outfielder.

  • April 4, 1978 - Jason Jerome Ellison former Major League Baseball outfielder.

  • April 15, 1978 - Milton Obelle Bradley, Jr.  retired Major League Baseball (MLB) outfielder.

  • May 2, 1978 - Denise-Marie Lawton   an Korean-born American actress known as Denyce Lawton.

  • May 10, 1978 - Kenan Thompson an American actor and comedian.

  • May 22, 1978 - Gabrielle Carmouche an American actress. She is best known for her role as Kateri Monroe on The Family Channel sitcom Big Brother Jake.

  • May 22, 1978 - Darnell "J.D." Williams an American actor best known for his starring roles in the HBO television programs Oz and The Wire.

  • June 2, 1978 - Deon Richmond  an American actor from New York City.

  • June 22, 1978 - William Charles Harris former American professional baseball outfielder.

  • June 23, 1978 - Memphis Bleek   is as American rapper mainly known for his tenure with Roc-a-Fella Records and CEO of his own label Get Low Records.

  • July 6, 1978 - Tia Dashon Mowry-Hardrict  a German-born American actress and model.

  • July 6, 1978 - Tamera Darvette Mowry-Housley  a German-born American actress and model.

  • August 2, 1978 - Natashia Williams-Blach an American actress and former Wonderbra campaign model.

  • August 7, 1978 - Cirroc Lofton  an American actor.

  • August 8, 1978 - Countess Danielle Vaughn  an American actress and singer.

  • August 23, 1978 - Kobe Bryant  is an American professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

  • August 25, 1978 - Kel Johari Rice Mitchell  an American actor, comedian, dancer, musician, screenwriter, director and producer.

  • August 28, 1978 - Linda M. Miles an American retired professional wrestler, former WWE Diva and manager.

  • September 4, 1978 - Serria Tawan  an African-American model, actress, and published author.

  • September 13, 1978 - Swizz Beatz  is an American hip hop recording artist and record producer from New York City, New York.

  • September 14, 1978 - Tanisha Lynn Eanes  an American actress.

  • September 16, 1978 - Ebonie Smith  Puerto Rican-born American former child actress.

  • September 19, 1978 - Tijuana Ricks  an American television actress.

  • September 23, 1978 - Anthony D. Mackie  an American actor.

  • October 4, 1978 - Telisha Shaw   an American actress, dancer, and singer.

  • October 4, 1978 - Dana Davis an American actress, known for playing Chastity Church on the ABC Family television series 10 Things I Hate About You.

  • October 6, 1978 - Phillip Kitsing Jeanmarie   an African-American actor.

  • October 7, 1978 - Omar Benson Miller  an American actor.

  • October 14, 1978 - Usher  singer, songwriter, dancer, and actor.

  • October 18, 1978 - Wesley Jonathan  an African-American actor.

  • November 9, 1978 - Sisqó  an American R&B singer, songwriter, dancer, record producer and actor.

  • November 10, 1978 - Eve   is an American hip hop recording artist and actress from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

  • November 17, 1978 - Darnell Tyrone McDonald former American professional baseball outfielder.

  • November 30, 1978 - Nelsan Ellis  an African-American film and television actor and playwright.

  • December 6, 1978 - K.D. Aubert an American actress and fashion model.

  • December 12, 1978 - Gbenga Akinnagbe   is an Nigerian American actor, best known for his role as Chris Partlow on the HBO original series The Wire.

  • December 28, 1978 - John Legend an American singer-songwriter and actor. He has won nine Grammy Awards. In 2007.

  • December 29, 1978 - LaToya Renee London  an American R&B and soul singer and actress.

  • December 30, 1978 - Tyrese   is an American Grammy-nominated R&B singer-songwriter, actor, author, television producer, former fashion model.



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black american deaths

Zara Cully
Zara Cully (right)
photo #102-yr-1892

     Famous Deaths in 1978
  • January 9, 1978 - Noble Johnson was an African-American actor and film producer.

  • February 28, 1978 - Zara Cully was an American actress, known for her role as Olivia "Mother Jefferson" Jefferson on the CBS sitcom The Jeffersons (1975-78).

  • September 23, 1978 - Lyman Wesley Bostock, Jr. was an American professional baseball player.

  • October 8, 1978 - James William "Junior" Gilliam was an American second and third baseman and coach in Negro League and Major League Baseball.

  • November 12, 1978 - Howard Swanson  was an American composer. Swanson studied at the Cleveland Institute of Music and was then taught by Nadia Boulanger in Paris.

  • December 12, 1978 - Bill Bailey   was an African-American tap dancer. He was the brother of Pearl Bailey and was the first person to be recorded doing the Moonwalk, although he referred to it as the "Backslide", in the film Cabin In the Sky.



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famous african american weddings

     Famous Weddings in 1978
  • March 2, 1978 - David Ruffin  weds Sandra Ruffin.

  • April 28, 1978 - Phylicia Rashad  weds Victor Willis.

  • 1978 - John Amos  weds Lillian Lehman.

  • 1978 - Ted Lange weds Sherryl Thompson.



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famous african american divorces

     Famous Divorces in 1978
  • March 29, 1978 - Ike Turner and Tina Turner are divorced.

  • 1978 - Richard Pryor and actress  Deborah McGuire are divorced.

  • 1978 - Lynn Whitfield and Vantile Whitfield are divorced.

  • 1978 - Pele and Rosemeri Cholby are divorced.

  • 1978 - Dennis Edwards and Ruth Pointer are divorced.



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soul music orgin


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soul train
Soul Train ran from 1971-2006
photo #109-yr-1971

Chaka Khan
Chaka Khan
photo #117-yr-1978

 Natalie Cole
Natalie Cole
photo #110-yr-1975

Bootsy Collins
Bootsy Collins
photo #118-yr-1978

 Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder
photo #109-yr-1967

Ella Fitzgerald
Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Ray Brown, Milt (Milton) Jackson, and Timme Rosenkrantz, Downbeat, New York, N.Y.
photo #100-yr-1959

     Music in 1978

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • "Ffun" Con Funk Shun

  • "Our Love" Natalie Cole

  • "Theme Song from 'Which Way Is Up'" Stargard

  • "Too Hot ta Trot" The Commodores

  • "It's You That I Need" Enchantment

  • "Flash Light" Parliament

  • "Bootzilla" Bootsy's Rubber Band

  • "The Closer I Get to You" Roberta Flack and Donny Hathaway

  • "Too Much, Too Little, Too Late" Johnny Mathis and Deniece Williams

  • "Take Me to the Next Phase (Part 1)" The Isley Brothers

  • "Use ta Be My Girl" The O'Jays

  • "Stuff Like That" Quincy Jones

  • "Close the Door" Teddy Pendergrass

  • "You and I" Rick James

  • "Boogie Oogie Oogie" A Taste Of Honey

  • "Three Times a Lady" The Commodores

  • "Get Off" Foxy

  • "Holding On (When Love Is Gone)" L.T.D.

  • "Got to Get You into My Life" Earth, Wind & Fire

  • "One Nation Under a Groove (Part 1)" Funkadelic

  • "I'm Every Woman" Chaka Khan

  • "Le Freak" Chic




  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Bump

  • Walking the dog

  • The Worm

  • The Rock Steady

  • The Breakdown

  • The Funky Chicken

  • Electric Slide

  • Locking - Roboting - Popping

  • Breakdancing - B-boying



  Musical Happenings in 1978:
  • Don Cornelius' Soul Train, an African American counterpart to American Bandstand, first airs.

  • The emcee begins to replace the DJ as the most prominent performer in hip hop.

  • Sony introduces the Walkman, a portable cassette player that contributes greatly to the success of that format for recorded music.

  • Soul Train was an American musical variety television program which aired in syndication from 1971 - 2006. In its 35-year history, the show primarily featured performances by R&B, soul, and hip hop artists, although funk, jazz, disco, and gospel artists also appeared. The series was created by Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.



 American Music Awards winners in 1978:
    The American Music Awards was created by Dick Clark to compete with the Grammy Awards. Michael Jackson and Donny Osmond co-hosted the first award show with Rodney Allen Rippy and Ricky Segall in 1974. Unlike the Grammys, which are awarded on the basis of votes by members of the Recording Academy, the AMAs are determined by a poll of the public and fans, who can vote through the AMAs website.

    Favorite Soul/R&B Male Artist
  • Stevie Wonder

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Female Artist
  • Natalie Cole

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Band, Duo, or Group
  • Earth Wind and Fire

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Album
  • Songs in the Key of Life - Stevie Wonder

  • Favorite Soul/R&B Single
  • "Best of My Love" - The Emotions

  • Award of Merit
  • Ella Fitzgerald



 Grammy winners in 1978:
    The 20th Annual Grammy Awards were held February 23, 1978, and were broadcast live on American television. They were hosted by folk music legend John Denver, and recognized accomplishments by musicians from the year 1977.

    Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording
  • Muddy Waters for Hard Again


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance, Traditional
  • James Cleveland for James Cleveland Live at Carnegie Hall


  • Best Soul Gospel Performance, Contemporary
  • Edwin Hawkins for Wonderful!


  • Best Jazz Performance by a Soloist
  • Oscar Peterson for The Giants


  • Best Jazz Performance by a Big Band
  • Count Basie for Prime Time


  • Best Jazz Vocal Performance
  • Al Jarreau for Look to the Rainbow


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Female
  • Thelma Houston for "Don't Leave Me This Way"


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance, Male
  • Lou Rawls for Unmistakably Lou


  • Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Duo, Group or Chorus
  • The Emotions for "Best of My Love"


  • Best R&B Instrumental Performance
  • The Brothers Johnson for "Q"




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graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s

hot pants of 1970s
Hot pants of the 1970s


billy preston afro
Singer Billy Preston in 1974 wearing an Afro hairstyle.
photo #122-yr-1970


afro hairstyle
Afro hairstyle of the late 60s/early 70s photo - pixabay.com


billy preston afro
African-American woman with short afro 1979 and silk scarves which were a popular fashion accessories for women.
photo #123-yr-1970


mini skirt
Fashionable miniskirt


graduation fashion
Graduation fashion times in Stockton California - 1970s


men fashion
Best friends fashions in Stockton California - 1970s


     Fashions and Styles in 1978

  Popular Fashions:

    Overview:
    The 1970's fashion, often called the "Me Decade", began with a continuation of the mini skirts, bell-bottoms, and the androgynous hippie look from the late 1960s and eventually became one of the most iconic decades for fashion ever.

    In the early 1970s, there was a trend for unisex men's and women's matching outfits with little to absolutely no differences. They often came together in matching sets.

    Generally the most famous silhouette of the mid and late 1970s for both genders was that of tight on top and loose on bottom. The 1970s also saw the birth of the indifferent, anti-conformist approach to fashion, which consisted of sweaters, t-shirts, jeans, and sneakers.


    Women:
    Popular early 1970s fashions for women included Tie dye shirts, Mexican peasant blouses, folk-embroidered Hungarian blouses, ponchos, capes, and military surplus clothing. Bottom attire for women during this time included bell-bottoms, gauchos, frayed jeansmidis" (which were unpopular), and ankle-length dresses called "maxis" were also worn in the early 1970s, thus offering women three different skirt lengths.

    Although the hippie look was widespread, it was not adopted by everyone. Many women still continued to dress up with more glamorous clothes, inspired by 1940s movie star glamour. Other women just adopted simple casual fashions. More simple early 1970s trends for women included fitted blazers (coming in a multitude of fabrics along with wide lapels), long and short dresses, mini skirts, maxi evening gowns, hot pants (extremely brief, tight-fitting shorts) paired with skin-tight t-shirts, his & hers outfits (matching outfits that were nearly identical to each other), and flared pants.

    Clean-cut, All-American active wear for women became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards. The biggest phenomenon of this trend was the jumpsuit, popular from 1975 onwards.

    Women's fashions in the late 1970s included cowl-neck shirts and sweaters, pantsuits, leisure suits, tracksuits, sundresses worn with tight t-shirts, strapless tops, lower-cut shirts, cardigans, velour shirts, tunics, robes, crop tops, tube tops, embroidered vests and jeans, knee-length skirts, loose satin pants, designer jeans, culottes, daisy dukes, and tennis shorts.

    In the early 1970s boots were at the height of their popularity, continuing onward from the mid 1960s. Women had boots for every occasion, with a wide variety of styles being sold in stores for affordable prices.

    Disco clothes worn by women included tube tops, sequined halterneck shirts, blazers, spandex short shorts, loose pants, form-fitting spandex pants, maxi skirts and dresses with long thigh slits, jersey wrap dresses, ball gowns, and evening gowns.


    Men:
    The early 1970s were a continuation of late 1960s hippie fashion. For men this particularly meant bell bottom jeans, tie dye shirts, and military surplus clothing. Other early 1970s clothes for men included matching outfits, sports jackets, khaki chinos, chunky sweaters, storm coats, battle jackets peacoats, flannel shirts, pleated pants, baseball jackets, corduroy pants, pullover sweaters and sweater vests, tassels, cardigans, and hip-huggers.

    Mens footwear in the early 1970s included flip-flops, oxfords, Birkenstocks, platform shoes, earth shoes, and cowboy boots.

    Fashion in the 1970s was generally informal and laid back for men. Most men simply wore jeans, sweaters, and T-shirts, which by then were being made with more elaborate designs. Men continued to wear flannel, and the Leisure suit became increasingly popular from 1975 onwards, often worn with gold medallions and oxford shoes. Vintage clothing, khaki chinos, workmens clothes, sweatshirts, leather coats, and all-denim outfits were also desired among young men.

    Hairstyles:
    In the mid-1960s, the Afro hairstyle began in a fairly tightly coiffed form, such as the hairstyle that became popular among members of the Black Panther Party. As the 1960s progressed towards the 1970s, popular hairstyles, both within and outside of the black African-American community, became longer and longer. As a result, the late 60s/early 70s saw an expansion in the overall size of Afros. Some of the entertainers and sociopolitical figures of the time known for wearing larger afros include political activist Angela Davis, actress Pam Grier, rock musician Jimi Hendrix, and the members of the musical groups The Jackson 5 and The Supremes. In the 1970s, making one of the popular hairstyles for a woman didn't take a lot of time. For Blacks in the United States and elsewhere, the afro was worn by both sexes throughout the decade. It was occasionally sported by whites as an alternative to the uniform long, straight hair which was a fashion mainstay until the arrival of punk and the"disco look" when hair became shorter and centre partings were no longer the mode.



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1970s

Marian Anderson
Marian Anderson
photo #104-yr-1955

Faye Wattleton
Faye Wattleton
photo #115-yr-1978

Louis Farrakhan
Louis Farrakhan
photo #116-yr-1978

 Romare Bearden
Romare Bearden photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, photographer
photo #112-yr-1912

mood ring
Mood ring of the 70s
photo #110-yr-1960

Our Community in 1978

Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • February 1, 1978 - Harriet Tubman is the first black woman to be honored on a US postage stamp.

  • 1978 - Faye Wattleton is the first African-American and youngest president ever elected to Planned Parenthood Federation of America, and is also the first woman since Margaret Sanger to hold the position.

  • 1978 - Jill Brown received her wings in 1978 as the first black female pilot to fly for a major U.S. commercial airline. (Texas International Airlines). Trivia: Speaking about her tenacity during an magazine interview in 1978, Jill stated: "Somebody once said that to be a success you must find a need, then fill that need. I felt women would someday have a chance in aviation, and I was determined to be ready for it."

  • 1978 - Louis Farrakhan and a small number of supporters decided to rebuild what they considered the original Nation of Islam upon the foundations established by Wallace Fard Muhammad, and Elijah Muhammad. This was done without publicly stating the intent.

  • October 1, 1978 - Governor Robert Bennett of Kansas names this day “Eva Jessye Day” in honor of the great choir director.

  • Opera singer Marian Anderson  was recognized with the Kennedy Center Honors award.

  • 1978 - Artist Romare Bearden was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member.


  • 1970s - A mood ring is a ring that changed colors based upon the temperature of the finger of the wearer. The ring included a color chart indicating the supposed mood of the wearer based upon the colors indicated on the ring. The mood ring was a big fad in the 1970s.

  • 1970s - The United States Population is 204,765,770 with a total of 22,580,289 being African Americans. Negroes are making more love and having more babies since the last census.




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RESOURCES:


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#100 -   By Newtown graffiti CC-BY-2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

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#105c -   By Starday-King Records (Billboard, page 81, 26 August 1972) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#114a -   By Evan Swigart from Chicago, USA (Tequila Sunrise) [CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

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#118 -   By Juanbobadilla (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#119 -   William P. Gottlieb [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#120 -   By Steve Petteway, Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States (Clarence Thomas - The Oyez Project) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#121 -   By en:user:Y uploader to en-wp (en:image:Virginia_Thomas.JPG) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#122 -   By TSGT W.D. Boradman [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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