blast from the past of 1961

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1961:
Nannie Helen Burroughs
    Nannie Helen Burroughs was an African-American educator, orator, religious leader, civil rights activist, feminist and businesswoman. She gained national recognition for her 1900 speech "How the Sisters Are Hindered from Helping," at the National Baptist Convention.

    Nannie Helen Burroughs was born on May 2, 1878, in Orange, Virginia. Her parents were John and Jennie Burroughs. Her father was born as a free person of color, and her mother was born into slavery in Virginia, the daughter of a slave. In 1883 the family moved to Washington D.C. so that the girl could be educated in its city schools.

    After the American Civil War, black congregations had quickly withdrawn from white-dominated churches in the South to create churches independent of white supervision. The National Baptist Convention is the largest black Baptist denomination. Also, such separate denominations as the African Methodist Episcopal Church planted new congregations among black communities in the South.

    In 1896, Burroughs helped establish the National Association of Colored Women (NACW), one of a number of new associations of black women organized for philanthropic and charitable purposes. In 1897, she started work as an associate editor at the Christian Banner in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    In 1898 Burroughs moved to Louisville, Kentucky for a position as bookkeeper and editorial secretary for the Foreign Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention, where she served until 1909. This was the national association of black Baptist churches. In 1902 she studied business. In 1907, she received an honorary A.M. degree from Eckstein-Norton University, a historically black college in Kentucky.

    In 1909, Burroughs founded the National Training School for Women and Girls in Washington, D.C. The school emphasized preparing students for employment. Burroughs offered courses in domestic science and secretarial skills, but also in unconventional occupations such as shoe repair, barbering, and gardening.

    Burroughs created a creed of racial self-help through her program of the three Bs: the Bible, the bath, and the broom. The Bible, the bath, and the broom stood for a clean life, a clean body, and a clean house. Burroughs was one of the first honorary members to be inducted into Delta Sigma Theta, a black sorority.

    Burroughs believed domestic work should be professionalized and vocational. She trained her students to be become self-sufficient wage earners and expert homemakers. She emphasized the importance of being proud black women to all students, by teaching African-American history and culture through a required course in the Department of Negro History.

    In 1928, the Herbert Hoover administration appointed Burroughs as committee chairwoman related to Negro Housing, for his 1931 White House Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership. This was held soon after the Crash of 1929 and the beginning of the Great Depression.

    Was this woman busy or what? She kept herself occupied with the work of helping our people. It seems she was involved in just about every cause that was positive for blacks. Can we say the same today about our role models? Nannie has made our job easy this year for choosing the 1961 Hamite Award winner, she was without a doubt in a class of her own, focused for achievement. Thank you so much, Nannie Helen Burroughs.

    Burroughs died in Washington, D.C., on May 20, 1961, of natural causes. The funeral was held at the Nineteenth Street Baptist Church where she was a member.

Nannie Helen Burroughs
Nannie Helen Burroughs
photo #104-yr-1961


Nannie Helen Burroughs
Nannie Helen Burroughs, an African American educator, orator, religious leader, and business women holding a Woman's National Baptist Convention banner.
photo #25-yr-1900







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How were blacks feeling in 1961?
sad mood of blacks


Our thoughts are with the brave freedom riders, black and white. We knew this day would come and are very excited about it. America should be too. Blacks have been almost invisible to whites the past 100 years, and now we are going to become neighbors and have our fair share of the American dream.

Prepare yourselves colored people, get that education and succeed!



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african american first

 For the year 1961:
  • Ernie Davis was the first African-American to win the Heisman Trophy

  • James Benton Parsons was the first African-American to serve on a U.S. district court

  • George Shirley was the first African-American tenor to sing leading roles for the Metropolitan Opera

  • Edith S. Sampson was the first African-American delegate to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

  • Nathan Boya a.k.a. William FitzGerald was the first African-American to go over Niagara Falls

  • Charlie Sifford was the first African-American to join the PGA Tour



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blacks and basketball

Gene  Baker
Gene Baker
photo #101-yr-1925

Willie  Mays
Willie Mays
photo #103-yr-1931

Willie Mays and Roy Campanella
Willie Mays and Roy Campanella in 1961
photo #105

John Junior Roseboro
John Junior Roseboro
photo #104-yr-1933

Frank Robinson
Frank Robinson
photo #107-yr-1935

Charles Luther Sifford
Charles Luther Sifford
photo #107-yr-1922

      Sports in 1961
  • In 1961, Gene Baker became the first African-American manager in Organized Baseball when the Pirates named him skipper of their Batavia Pirates farm club in the New York-Penn League.

  • Willie Mays won the National League Gold Glove Awards.

  • John Roseboro won the National League Gold Glove Awards.

  • Cincinnati Reds, Frank Robinson wins Most Valuable Player Award.

  • Golfer Charlie Sifford was the first African-American to join the PGA Tour.



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ballot box

John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
photo #108-yr-1960

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
photo #108-yr-1953

      Political Scene in 1961
  • 1961 - Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy commonly known as Jack Kennedy or by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Analysis:   It seems to me John Kennedy was very similar/hesitant to other presidents before him when it came to the civil rights for blacks. I think he got more confidence later. With the recent battle between Democracy and Communism, every U.S. president since Roosevelt recognizes the need for civil rights for blacks. Consider a speech he made on this subject:

    "The denial of constitutional rights to some of our fellow Americans on account of race - at the ballot box and elsewhere - disturbs the national conscience, and subjects us to the charge of world opinion that our democracy is not equal to the high promise of our heritage."

    I don't know how much it bothered the national conscience, I mean come on let us face it, it had been going on this way for years. No, my money would be on the fact that America knows it can't lead the world and have these terrible injustices at home with its black citizens. This is the main reason for the Civil Rights movement of the 60s. Not because America sincerely recognizes it as unjust. Now the problem is going to be convincing white Americans to accept it because, since emancipation, whites have been blissfully ignorant to the Negro, which they hardly ever saw in their daily lives. That's a big change for American whites soon to take place. But we knew it would have to happen peacefully one day, or either it would have been a revolution. Kennedy recognized discrimination and intolerance were wrong but just like presidents before him was bullied by the South and didn't want to start trouble because his effectiveness in getting other bills passed that had nothing to do with civil rights would be more difficult. Ultimately what made civil rights movement a success was without a doubt the courageous blacks and whites who took part in it, these are true Americans and visionaries. They made it a priority. His brother Robert Kennedy once gave him the advice to "keep the president out of this civil rights mess." Robert Kennedy was also in cahoots with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover, who hated civil-rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and viewed him as an upstart troublemaker and communist, authorizing the director to wiretap King and other leaders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Many civil rights leaders saw John Kennedy as lukewarm, especially concerning the Freedom Riders, who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the South, and who were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including law enforcement officers, both federal and state. Martin Luther King felt Kennedy was moving slowly and prepared to march on Washington which had Kennedy's approval only after he was able to view and edit the speeches because he didn't want angry words to incite a riot. The Supreme Court had recently given blacks favorable rulings with integration, but the only problem was white Americans were not obeying the law. Kennedy was not expecting this turmoil when he became president. Before the election he had pulled a few tricks out of his political hat by getting Martin Luther King Jr. released early from prison, and had even paid a visit to Corretta to console her, this little gesture gave him a good reputation among blacks, and they threw their votes his way. But once in office, he forgot all about black causes until heroes like Martin Luther King and the Freedom Riders put the issue right in Americas face. So Kennedy was forced into the civil rights movement, which when it came down to a decision to be made because of tensions running sky high he proposed to the nation a Civil Rights bill by making the following comments:

    "We are confronted primarily with a moral issue.... It is as old as the scriptures and is as clear as the American Constitution.... One hundred years of delay have passed since President Lincoln freed the slaves, yet their heirs... are not fully free. They are not yet freed from the bonds of injustice... this Nation... will not be fully free until all its citizens are free.... Now the time has come for this Nation to fulfill its promise.

    After his address, Martin Luther King, Jr. called President Kennedy's "civil rights proposals, 'the most sweeping and forthright ever presented by an American president.'" But King also knew the battle wasn't over, especially in the south. Seven months after Kennedy was assassinated the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 abolishes discrimination in public accommodations, employment, and federally funded programs.


  • Sidenote: I must say that I'm a little disappointed in the way the Kennedy brothers handled the Civil Rights issue. Even though we finally got what we wanted, I was always under the impression that the Kennedys were ardent lovers of justice for blacks, maybe because there were many blacks wailing and crying when he was shot. But the truth of the matter is he kind of fell into the Civil Rights issue, not because he wanted to, and that makes a difference how history will judge him.


  • Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. Analysis:   Dwight D. Eisenhower was raised in a very religious household and some of his values followed him into later life. When receiving backlash from the Navy because of a refusal to fully integrate, Eisenhower made the statement that America is not taking one step backward in Civil Rights of blacks. Why? It wasn't because it was the right and moral thing to do, it was because Communists around the world who were using the racial discrimination and history of violence in the U.S. as a point of propaganda attack. Well, I guess we'll take justice any way we can get it. Many positive changes happened for the Negro during this period because of Communism. Eisenhower told District of Columbia officials to make Washington a model for the rest of the country in integrating black and white public school children. He proposed to Congress the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and 1960 and signed those acts into law. "There must be no second-class citizens in this country" he stated.





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america' last chance
america' last chance


Liberty, Justice and Freedom For All

It's true at one time in history; America was intended solely for white people, but not all white people. Most of America's founders desired only the fittest and smartest whites to settle here. The Irish, Italians and many more ethnic groups were considered low-life and not worthy to intermingle with the self-proclaimed superior whites, in fact, they were treated as harshly as the black slaves.


But within time they changed their views and allowed lower class whites to have an equal say in the building of America, and of course being similar in color made it easy for these different classes to blend in with one another, and in time you couldn't tell the difference. A luxury that was impossible for blacks to attain.


But on the other hand, Black slaves were considered savage beast without the capabilities to learn and contribute to America, other than with their back-breaking labor.


Why did whites feel this way abouts blacks?


Before their arrival to America as slaves, they were very far behind in development and worldly intelligence. There were great African Kingdoms, but they were no match for the ruthless Europeans. African rulers failed to educate their citizens which would have been a huge undertaking because there were thousands upon thousands of different tribes and clans with their distinct language and customs.


Most Africans didn't know how to read and write and would pass their history down from generation to the next orally. They also believed profoundly in superstition and all sorts of foolish beliefs that didn't help them once the Europeans arrived allowing them to ravage and dominate the African populations completely. Whites were very competitive and chose to proclaim themselves superior to the blacks, instead of sharing their knowledge to help these uneducated Africans.


So from the beginning, the Europeans made this a race issue. Africans were so far behind in human development, whites thought very lowly of them, and since they didn't have examples and scientific techniques we have today to prove otherwise they did as they pleased with little protest from the majority of the white population. In fact, most whites believed blacks were half human/beast only because they didn't know any better.


But in time things would change and there would become many free blacks and also blacks in slavery who would achieve against all the odds of racism. Many whites began to realize that blacks were human beings and if given a chance could be just as intelligent as white people. The movement was started to get blacks equality in America to the dismay of hardcore white supremacist who refused to accept this undeniable evidence that all men are equal in ability.


Scientific discoveries would later determine there was no genetic proof that blacks were inferior to other races which would utterly destroy the superior white theory that had been preached for centuries. All that blacks needed was an education and an opportunity to compete and could do just as well as other races.


Although African-Americans were not immigrants but brought here as slaves, they had things in common because they also yearned for liberty, justice, and freedom. In time what made America so great was it realized it was wrong and attempted to change it's view so it could live up to the true meaning of liberty and justice for all.


But this wouldn't be easy because of many white people who refused to change their views and progress to a new era of love and cooperation for all humanity. They choose to live in the past where they enjoyed a comfortable, privileged life without blacks in the loop.


america' last chance


Since the races were compared to an inferior versus superior issue, many centuries ago white superior beliefs may have been a reasonable belief, with the Africans so far behind in human development and Europeans much more advanced. But with the successes of countless black Americans and other dark-skinned people around the world today, racism and hate have become an archaic, unreasonable and ignorant belief.


Is America at the crossroad?

Well if so, it had to happen one day. For generation after generation, whites have either consciously or unconsciously enjoyed special privilege in America. They control the purse strings not only in America but around the world in dictating a perverted version of justice and liberty for all. Other groups at home and abroad are growing weary and are fighting back.


Now the questions become, what will America do next? Will she attempt in becoming a true America of tolerance, justice and liberty for all people or retreat to her lily white past where there is undoubtedly much danger awaiting for all who reside in her? Britain must answer the same questions.


america' last chance


Simply put, for people who say they love America but hate certain ethnic groups who reside in her are lying to themselves. Their hatred is not based on anything factual. They hate America. They're not true Americans and completely fail to understand the real meaning of her and seek to destroy the last great empire in world history with their foolish hate.


america' last chance






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presidents rating guide
filler presidents rating guide
What is The Declaration of Independence?
It is a statement that the colonist wrote that officially declared their independence from Great Britain. They would now be called, The United States of America. This very special occasion is celebrated every July 4th in America.

The Declaration in part states:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

After becoming official, many of the political leaders set their slaves free because they felt it was hypocritical denying a race of people life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These men had a moral conscience, and strived to be true Americans.

But on the other hand, many leaders chose to hold on to their slaves because it would mean a significant loss monetarily. These men didn't have a moral conscience. They let money and greed reign supreme.


The world was watching and ridiculed the men who held on to their slaves. America's very first test in morality and would set the tone for many years to come and up unto this day. Most Americans would put money first, with the lesser group clinging to true American principles. There were 12 American Presidents who were slaveholders, 8 of them while in office.

filler greedy green monster
You ugly detestable greedy creep.
Is this what America has become?
Yes, the Negro thinks so

 Presidential Ratings

Looking through the eyes of a young person, imagine what you would see. Many may not understand how America came to be so polarized. Since the 60s, blacks have made enormous strides, but generally speaking today a youngster might see a white class of people who seem to have it all together, professionally, socially, educationally, economically, and the blacks are always demanding.

Can you imagine how overwhelming and intimidating this could be to some? But when a young black person understands their rich history, it will without a doubt give them courage and strength to believe in themselves, and when that happens, color of skin becomes less of an issue.

Young people deserve to be told the truth about how America became this way, and not in hate or a way that puts down another race. The truth, pure and simple that can be backed up with any library or Google search. America did not just happen yesterday, it took many years for this situation to become this way, and you might be surprised to learn that it was orchestrated by some not so sweet people who didn't sincerely believe in the meaning of the U.S. Constitution or the Declaration of Independence.

During slavery, the Negro depended on their masters for every single necessity of life. Even the smallest want of a slave had to be approved by his master. It also was a severe crime for anyone caught teaching the slaves to read or write. Books were hidden from the Negro, which meant that slaves were illiterate.

The Emancipation Proclamation freed over four million slaves, most of whom had lived and worked on plantations. America wanted to help these former slaves with Reconstruction aid such as education, medical, housing, etc., attempting to place these illiterate and uneducated Negroes on the road to complete American success.

What was the general attitude of the Negro with this Reconstruction help?

YEAH, THAT'S WHAT I'M TALKING ABOUT, THANKS SO MUCH AMERICA, WE WILL PROVE WE CAN BECOME SELF-RELIANT PRODUCTIVE CITIZENS! WE CAN'T WAIT TO FIND OUT WHAT'S IN THOSE BOOKS YOU HAVE BEEN HIDING FROM US. LET"S GET THIS THING STARTED!

Enthusiasm and motivation were very high to excel. The schools that had been built for the Negro were packed to capacity with students from 7-70 years of age. Educated blacks were getting elected to office as politicians. Fruitful black communities sprang up, and for the first time in American history, the Negro felt like he was a part of America, and was super happy looking toward a prosperous future.

But sadly, there were some who were not as happy, and these were the former Confederates who lived in the same cities. They didn't want any part of Negro success and to be governed by the people they just lost as slaves. So there was a great white resistance.

What was the result?

After only a few short years, the U.S. Government bowed down to these white supremacist and canceled Reconstruction aid to the former slaves. This was called the 1877 Compromise, (please click on 1877 for details) and blacks calling it the 1877 Grand Betrayal. Terrorist had attacked countless black American citizens. Negroes were hanged, tortured, raped, murdered by the whites with total impunity. The U.S. government knew and did nothing, ignoring the enforcement duties set out in the Constitution.

The little gains the Negro was able to achieve were snatched away, and in the meantime, there were still millions of illiterate, defeated, restricted and uneducated black nomads wandering around in a racist society trying to make it the best way they could, and this situation would remain this way until the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, and yes this is how the black ghetto's got their start.

There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?

We are rating each and every President up unto the Civil Rights movement of the 60s in regards to the Constitutional laws he took oath to uphold for all American citizens. The ratings can be located at the end of each President's term in office. Please keep in mind there are millions of poor and uneducated blacks in America seeking assistance into assimilating into American culture after 200 years of brutal slavery. Our focus is to find a courageous President, like Abe Lincoln that will solve this problem, and not pass it on to the next administration. Do you think the decisions of these Presidents would have an impact on the lives of blacks today? Of course it would.


abe lincoln Abraham Lincoln was assassinated before the Amendments to the Constitution became official, but without a doubt he understood and enforced the high standards and morality the Constitution stood for. happy former slave
Andrew Johnson Andrew Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment, which gave citizenship to former slaves. He fought the Negro every step of the way. Johnson was also a former slaveholder. He didn't believe all were created equal. He didn't uphold the Constitution. sad former slave
Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant was complete opposite of Andrew Johnson. Grant assisted the Negro in his quest of assimilation. He understood and enforced the United States Constitution. happy former slave
Rutherford B. Hayes Rutherford B. Hayes was an opportunist and sold out the Negro big time with the 1877 Compromise. He didn't understand what his country stood for. sad former slave
James A Garfield James A Garfield was a strong defender of Civil Rights, and wanted the Negro to progress through education. Sadly he didn't get a chance to fufill his intentions because he was assassinated, but we give him the benefit of the doubt. We believe he understood the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Chester Arthur Chester Arthur wasn't really ever concerned with the negro issue. but he didn't make this humongous Negro problems his priority but chose to ignore it and pass it on to the next admin. He did not understand the principles of the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland actually sided with the white terrorist in the Chinese race riots and felt it was the Chinese fault. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, he only believed in it as far as it would benefit him, just like typical America. sad former slave
Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison attempted to pass legislation to protect black Americans' civil rights. Nice words he had for blacks but in all honesty, we need something more concrete to hold on too. But we believe that this president understood the principles of the U.S. Constitution. happy former slave
Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland second term wasn't any better than the first. He wasn't a true believer in the U.S. Constitution, and was a no-show for the American Negro. sad former slave
William McKinley William McKinley didn't care much for the Civil Rights of Negroes. he failed to enforce the Constitution, because there were many abuses nationwide and he didn't act. He didn't understand or just didn't care. sad former slave
Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt glazed over the Negroes problems with beautiful speeches, but no action. I was pulling for this president to be fair, mainly because he was loved by many in his day, blacks included, but history shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution. Sorry Teddy. sad former slave
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft wasn't in touch with the humongous Negro problem that was left festering since the emancipation. History shows that he failed to enforce the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson was a typical no-show as president for the Negro poplualtion. He instigated segregation in U.S. If you're claiming to the world as being a great democracy and not living up to that boast at home is a falsehood. sad former slave
Warren G. Harding Warren G. Harding same old story. He spoke of the development of Negro, just didnt make it a priority and nothing was accomplished. Good intentions won't make a plant grow, you have to water it. The negro had hopes in this president, but another no-show. sad former slave
Calvin Coolidge  Calvin Coolidge didn't talk much but made wonderful speeches that had impact and just what the lowly Negro wanted to hear, but that's as far as it went. A true America is more than just hollow words, Abe Lincoln understood that. Why can't others? sad former slave
Herbert C. Hoover   Herbert C. Hoover rarely talked about civil rights during his administration. Blacks had to make do the best way they could. He was a very weak president for the Negro, as far as getting our civil rights restored and enforced as stated in the U.S. Constitution. sad former slave
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt had the best first lady ever, and we think without her the Negro would have suffered more. The door has finally been opened for civil rights during this administration. Everybody loved FDR. FDR had our deepest respect. sad former slave
Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman wanted to make the Negro issues a moral priority. He witnessed blacks fighting and dying in the wars and had much respect. Harry Truman & former first lady (Eleanor) got the ball rolling for blacks with our Civil Rights. Thanks Eleanor & Harry! happy former slave
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower agressively ended segregation in Armed Forces. The Navy complained and he made the comment "We shall not take a single backward step. There must be no second class citizens in this country" This site believes it was motivated by Communism. happy former slave


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blacks moving into neighborhood



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HOW LONG WILL GOOD WHITE-AMERICANS
SIT ON THE FENCE?




whites sitting on fence


Since the beginning of American history, there's always been a fight between good and bad. The problem is that both good and bad forces claim to adore democracy. Someone is lying. You be the judge.


First, we need to define democracy and we'll let two of America's greatest Presidents do this for us by their actions and famous quotes.


Abraham Lincoln made the following quotes:

"As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master. This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this to the extent of the difference, is no democracy."

"I have no purpose to introduce political and social equality between the white and the black races.... But I hold that ... there is no reason in the world why the negro is not entitled to all the natural rights enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."


Now it's very clear from the many biased comments Abraham Lincoln made against black people he wasn't the type that would have blacks over for dinner, in fact, most whites shared his views many years ago. But that's okay, at least he was honest. This site believes he would have changed his racist views if living in our time because one of his most admirable qualities was flexibility.


In contrast to Abraham Lincoln, the first President of the United States, George Washington didn't share Lincoln's view of democracy.


Black slaves were actively sought and recruited to fight for America in the Revolutionary War and promised citizenship after the victory. It's well recorded that slaves fought with courage and valor that ensured American success. George Washington himself made the comment:

Washington wrote a letter to Colonel Henry Lee III stating that success in the war would come to whatever side could arm the blacks the fastest.


whites sitting on fence

But after victory in the war, America didn't keep it promises, and most blacks were forced back into slavery. Of course, George Washington had to know about this but did nothing. Washington was a brilliant soldier but failed as an upholder of truth and justice and set the tone for future race relations in our country by trivializing and compromising real Democracy.


Washington had many slaves himself and didn't want to free them and damage his financial stake. He put money interests ahead of real Democracy. But all of America's founders didn't feel this way. A contemporary of Washington and future President John Adams hated slavery and was proud to boast he handled his business with paid workers. Did George Washington look at himself in the mirror and feel guilty about compromising (true) American Democracy? History says he didn't.


Washington created the blueprint for this distorted view of true Democracy


Blacks in the colonies had been treated poorly since their arrival from Africa, but this action by Washington made it official. This blueprint became the norm in much of America's dealings with black people. Whites felt if their supreme leader thought so lowly of black people, they would also.


We must all be honest with ourselves in admitting this view of Democracy was not American because it denied certain humans liberty, justice and the pursuit of happiness. Therefore we must call for what it was, which is Anti-American.


So we had two different Presidents with various versions of Democracy, and this is the way it remains today. What made Lincoln a force for good and better President was he put Democracy first and his personal prejudices second, but Washington put his financial interest ahead of true Democracy. This is what set these two men apart. Both were great men with different views about what it meant to be an American on the side of liberty and justice for all.


After Lincoln's death, democracy would take a downward spiral. One of the most biased President in American history led the attack. His name was Andrew Johnson, and he fought against the Civil Rights of blacks tooth and nail. Every favorable bill for former slaves that appeared on his desk was immediately denied. Later, there were new laws created to restrict black American citizens that worked very well. This was called the Jim Crow era. It was an all-out attack on Democracy by Anti-Americans and aided by good white Americans who remained on the fence. Read for yourself.


There's not enough room on this web page to describe the hate and exclusion by government and white Americans against blacks during this period. Jim Crow laws touched every part of life, all across America. Blacks and whites were kept apart as much as possible. Good jobs went to whites; blacks were given the worst with less pay. Many industries wouldn’t hire blacks. Many unions passed special rules to exclude them. All juries and judges were white; blacks were illegally denied voting rights. No blacks allowed in public pools. Many restaurants would not serve blacks, and those that did had a dirty colored section. Blacks and whites went to county fairs on different days. Blacks couldn't use public libraries. Simple common courtesy was rarely shown the blacks. Whites beat, tortured, raped and killed blacks with no fear of punishment. Blacks were denied credit for businesses, housing, cars by the banks. Blacks were kept out of white neighborhoods with housing covenants. Oklahoma had black and white phone booths. Texas had cities where blacks were entirely restricted from living. Blacks could not leave their homes after 10:00 pm in Mobile Alabama. Blacks could not marry whites. Georgia had separate white and black parks. Prisons, hospitals, and orphanages were segregated as were schools and colleges. Blacks and whites had to use separate sets of books in school, in Florida, they couldn't be stored together. When a person was sworn in at a trial, the whites used one Bible, and the blacks had a separate Bible. For those who did complete college, a crucial question had to be answered. Who was going to be their clients? Whites didn't engage blacks in business, and the battered Negro couldn't afford their services. These laws became so entrenched in American life; even unwritten laws affected black citizenship; blacks understood to stay out of white stores and establishments. Segregation was so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them. After the Civil Rights movement of the 60s, blacks have made enormous gains. This is how the United States of America became a polarized country. Each and every President knew what was going on and allowed this illegal activity for 87 years. Were they guilty of not upholding the United States Constitution in the Negroes behalf? Is this the reason why many other nations laugh at America with its constant claims of being on the side of good and high morality?



Did religion made things worse?


Even though the U.S. was not founded as a Christian nation and existed solely as a secular state completely free of religious influence in lawmaking, religion would soon be thrown into the loop. This made American people feel righteous and just in their own eyes. White's beleived they were "good" and made in God's image and blacks were not. In time slogans such as "In God We Trust" were printed on money to describe a people who had snuffed out Democracy, They felt God was on their side and loved only them.


Countless movies, radio shows, newspapers, magazines and other media would consistently portray these Anti-Americans as on the side of good, morally upstanding and righteous to the world with God on their side. Good white Americans had to know this was a farce because of the way it's black citizens were being treated and did nothing.


There were a relative few brave, good white Americans who spoke up during this period and got involved with some even losing their lives, but the majority did nothing. They remained on the fence because they were also partakers of the privileged American way of living and failed to realize how this was undermining true Democracy with the threat of one day being faced with an America they wouldn't recognize.


whites sitting on fence


“Ignorance of how we are shaped racially is the first sign of privilege. In other words. It is a privilege to ignore the consequences of race in America.” Tim Wise


So, what now?


Because of the folly of racism and privilege by Anti-Americans and the lack of action to speak out for true Democracy by good Americans, has our country morphed into another form of power? Something that is completely different than it started out as, perhaps like an insatiable, detestable and ugly monster, without a soul or conscience? You be the judge.


whites sitting on fence





divider for amazing blacks


Treasures of humanity


racism

race issues in america
"Colored Waiting Room" sign from
segregationist era United States
photo #100 -year-1878

     Race in 1961
  • May 4, 1961 - Led by CORE Director James Farmer, 13 riders (seven black, six white, including Genevieve Hughes, William E. Harbour, and Ed Blankenheim) left Washington, DC, on Greyhound and Trailways buses. Their plan was to ride through Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, ending in New Orleans, Louisiana, where a civil rights rally was planned.

  • 1961 - Athens, Georgia, witnessed part of the civil rights movement when Charlayne Hunter and Hamilton Holmes became the first two African-American students to enroll in the University of Georgia. She graduated in 1963.



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black Movies in America
Movies in America

Lena Horne
Lena Horne from her own stage show Nine O'Clock Revue, in 1961.
photo #101

Eddie Rochester Anderson
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
photo #103-yr-1937

Jack Benny's radio shows cast
Jack Benny's radio shows cast
photo #104-yr-1937

Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
photo #106-yr-1922

Frederick ONeal
Frederick O'Neal
photo #115-yr-1905

Dorothy Dandridge
Dorothy Dandridge
photo #102

     Television / Movies in 1961
    Movies:
  • A Raisin in the Sun is a 1961 drama film, starring Sidney Poitier and Ruby Dee and adapted from the play of the same name by Lorraine Hansberry.The movie is about a black family that wants a better life away from the city. This film was and is very popular in the black community.

  • The Murder Men - Dorothy Dandridge (role as Norma Sherman)



  • Television:
  • Starting in the year of 1937, a new funny man would co-star on the Jack Benny Show. This man went by the name of Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. Eddie's character of "Rochester" generated much laughter, becoming immensely popular and would become a household name from 1937 to 1965 in America. The humor on the show was the usual stereotypical stuff that blacks had to endure, but later it would become a stepping stone for many successful comedians to follow. Eddie became the first black to have a regular role on a nationwide radio program. The show started on radio and moved to television in 1951 until it went off the air in the 1964-1965 season. Trivia:  Anderson was frequently late for the show. Benny attempted to instill punctuality in Anderson by fining him $50 each time he arrived late at the studio. Anderson had a habit of losing track of time, especially when he was talking with someone. Must have had something to say huh Eddie?

  • Car 54, Where Are You? was an American sitcom that ran on NBC from 1961 to 1963, and was about two New York police officers based at the fictional 53rd precinct in The Bronx. Car 54 was their patrol car. The show was filmed only in black-and-white. The show starred some big names in the African American community such as, Nipsey Russell as Officer Anderson, Ossie Davis as Officer Omar Anderson, and Frederick O'Neal as Officer Wallace.




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famous black birthdays

Barack Hussein Obama
Barack Hussein Obama
photo #102-yr-1961

Laurence Fishburne
Laurence Fishburne
photo #101-yr-2002

Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
photo #103-yr-1961

Carl Lewis
Carl Lewis
photo #104-yr-1983

Jacqueline A. Berrien
Jacqueline A. Berrien
photo #government photo

     Famous Birthdays in 1961
  • February 5, 1961 - Tim Meadows an African-American actor and comedian.

  • February 24, 1961 - Kasi Lemmons an American film director and actress.

  • February 28, 1961 - Rae Dawn Chong a Canadian-American actress.

  • March 14, 1961 - Penny Johnson Jerald an American actress.

  • March 18, 1961 - Geoffrey Owens an African-American actor and director.

  • April 3, 1961 - Eddie Murphy  an American comedian, actor, writer, singer, and director.

  • April 30, 1961 - Isiah Thomas  retired African-American basketball player who played professionally for the Detroit Pistons.

  • May 20, 1961 - Ralph Wendell Bryant retired Major League Baseball player.

  • May 30, 1961 - Ralph Carter  an American actor and singer.

  • June 1, 1961 - Mark Curry an American actor, comedian, and host.

  • June 7, 1961 - Kym Elizabeth Whitley an American comedian and actress.

  • June 17, 1961 - Michael Charles Brantley a former Major League Baseball player.

  • July 1, 1961 - Carl Lewis an American former track and field athlete, who won 10 Olympic medals, including nine gold, and 10 World Championships medals, including eight gold. His career spanned from 1979 to 1996 when he last won an Olympic title and subsequently retired.

  • July 15, 1961 - Forest Whitaker an African-American actor, producer, and director.

  • July 17, 1961 - Anthony Dwain Lee was an American stage, television and film actor.

  • July 17, 1961 - Guru was an American rapper, producer and actor best known as a member of the hip-hop duo Gang Starr.

  • July 30, 1961 - Laurence Fishburn an American actor, playwright, director, and producer.

  • August 4, 1961 - Barack Hussein Obama the 44th President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.

  • August 13, 1961 - Dawnn Lewis an African-American actress and singer.

  • August 15, 1961 - John Christopher Brown was a African-American third baseman in Major League Baseball.

  • August 17, 1961 - Larry B. Scott an American actor.

  • August 18, 1961 - Glenn E. Plummer an American film and television actor.

  • August 23, 1961 - Michael Taliferro  was an African-American film and television actor, sportsman and singer.

  • August 27, 1961 - Yolanda Yvette Adams an American gospel singer, record producer, actress, and radio host on WBLS.

  • September 7, 1961 - Don "D.C." Curry  an African-American actor and stand-up comedian.

  • September 14, 1961 - Freeman Aikaeli Mbowe is a Tanzanian politician and chairman of Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo.

  • September 15, 1961 - Noel MacNeal  an African American puppeteer, writer, and director of children's television.

  • September 23, 1961 - Kenneth "Chi" McBride an American actor.

  • September 26, 1961 - Cindy Herron an American singer and actress, who is best known as a founding member of the quartet En Vogue.

  • October 16, 1961 - Kim N. Wayans  an African-American actress, comedian, producer, writer and director.

  • October 16, 1961 - Tonye T. Patano an American actress.

  • October 30, 1961 - Larry Wilmore an American political satirist, writer, producer, television host, actor, media critic, and comedian.

  • November 28, 1961 - Jacqueline A. Berrien   was sworn in as EEOC Chair on April 7, 2010. In nominating her for the post, President Barack Obama said she “has spent her entire career fighting to give voice to underrepresented communities and protect our most basic rights.”

  • December 11, 1961 - Angie Stone  an African-American actress.

  • December 16, 1961 - LaChanze an American actress, singer, and dancer.

  • December 19, 1961 - Angie Stone  an African-American soul/neo soul singer-songwriter, record producer, and actress.



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black american deaths

Nannie Helen Burroughs
Nannie Helen Burroughs
photo #104-yr-1961

Muriel Rahn
Muriel Rahn
photo #103-yr-1911

Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave
Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave
photo #108-yr-1890

 Eugene Jacques Bullard
Eugene Jacques Bullard
photo #103-yr-1895

     Famous Deaths in 1961
  • February 21, 1961 - Frederick McKinley Jones was an American inventor, entrepreneur, winner of the National Medal of Technology, and inductee of the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

  • April 3, 1961 - Florence Cole Talbert-McCleave was an African-American soprano born in Detroit, Michigan.

  • April 30, 1961 - Jessie Redmon Fauset was an African-American editor, poet, essayist and novelist.

  • May 14, 1961 - James Farmer Sr. was an American author, theologian, and educator. He earned his bachelor, masters of theology, and doctoral degrees at Boston University.

  • May 20, 1961 - Nannie Helen Burroughs was an African-American educator, orator, religious leader, civil rights activist, feminist and businesswoman.

  • October 12, 1961 - Eugene Jacques Bullard  was the first African-American military pilot. His life has been surrounded by many legends. However, Bullard, who flew for France, was unquestionably one of the few black combat pilots during World War I, along with the Ottoman Empire's Ahmet Ali Çelikten.

  • December 6, 1961 - Frantz Omar Fanon was a Martinique-born Afro-French psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer.

  • 1961 - Muriel Rahn  was an American vocalist and actress. She co-founded the Rose McClendon Players with her husband, Dick Campbell and was one of the leading black concert singers of the mid-20th Century. She is perhaps best known for her starring role in the original Broadway production of Carmen Jones.

  • 1961 - Lottie Hawkins was an African-American educator in North Carolina.



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famous african american weddings

Nina Simone
Nina Simone
photo #101-yr-2003

Otis  Redding
Otis Redding
photo #101-yr-1941

     Famous Weddings in 1961
  • August 1961 - Otis Redding married  Zelma Atwood.

  • 1961 - Nina Simone married Andy Stroud.

  • 1961 - Brock Peters married Dolores Daniels.

  • 1961 - Marvin Gaye married Anna Gordy Gaye.

  • 1961 - Frank Robinson married Barbara Ann Cole.

  • 1961 - Newscaster Louis Lomax  marries Wanda Kay.



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famous african american divorces

 Gordon  Parks
Gordon Parks
photo #113-yr-1912

     Famous Divorces in 1961
  • 1961 - Gordon Parks  and  Sally Alvis were divorced.

  • 1961 - Richard Pryor and Patricia Price were divorced.

  • 1961 - Josephine Baker and Jo Bouillon were divorced.

  • 1961 - Willie Mays and Margherite Chapman were divorced.



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juke joints, party for black people
chitlin circuit

negro green book

The Negro Motorist Green Book was an annual guidebook for African Americans, commonly referred to simply as the "Green Book". It was published from 1936 to 1966, during the Jim Crow era, when discrimination against non-whites was widespread. Middle-class blacks took to driving in part to avoid segregation on public transportation. Blacks employed as salesmen, entertainers and athletes also traveled frequently for work purposes. African American travelers faced a variety of dangers and inconveniences, such as white-owned businesses refusing to serve them or repair their vehicles, being refused accommodation or food by white-owned hotels, and threats of physical violence and forcible expulsion from whites-only "sundown towns". New York mailman and travel agent Victor H. Green published The Negro Motorist Green Book to tackle such problems and "to give the Negro traveler information that will keep him from running into difficulties, embarrassments and to make his trip more enjoyable." The Green Book became "the bible of black travel during Jim Crow." These people were crazy on the for real side! You can bet the Chitlin' Circuit entertainers used the Green Book.

     It's a Party in 1961
    Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.


  • chitlin circuit
    Jitterbugging in Negro juke joint,
    Saturday evening, outside Clarksdale, Mississippi

    photo #111-yr-1930

    chitlin circuit
    An African American couple dance the jitterbug in front
    of a crowd. Los Angeles California.

    photo #112-yr-1930



divider for amazing blacks


soul music orgin




Ray Charles
Ray Charles
photo #100-yr-1961

The Marvelettes
The Marvelettes
photo #107-yr-1961

     Music in 1961

  Billboard Top Soul Hits:
  • January 2, 1961 - "He Will Break Your Heart (He Don't Love You, Like I Love You)" Jerry Butler

  • January 16, 1961 - "Shop Around" The Miracles

  • March 13, 1961 - "Pony Time" Chubby Checker

  • March 27, 1961 - "I Pity the Fool" Bobby "Blue" Bland

  • April 3, 1961 - "Blue Moon" The Marcels

  • April 17, 1961 - One Mint Julep Ray Charles

  • April 24, 1961 - "Mother-in-Law" Ernie K-Doe

  • May 29, 1961 - "Stand By Me" Ben E. King

  • June 26, 1961 - "Every Beat of My Heart" The Pips

  • July 3, 1961 - "Tossin' and Turnin'" Bobby Lewis

  • September 11, 1961 - "My True Story" The Jive Five

  • October 2, 1961 - "Hit the Road Jack" Ray Charles

  • November 6, 1961 - "Ya Ya" Lee Dorsey

  • November 13, 1961 - "Please Mr. Postman" The Marvelettes



  Popular Soul Dances
  • The Twist

  • The Monkey

  • Chicago Walk

  • The Stroll

  • The Dog

  • The Madison

  • The Hully Gully

  • The Watusi

  • The Pony

  • The Swim

  • The Hitch Hike

  • Cool Jerk

  • Hand Jive



  Musical Happenings in 1961:
  • The record players we used:
    From mid 1950s through the 1960s, folks in the United States would typically have had these features on their record player, a 3 or 4 speed player (78, 45, 331/3, and sometimes 162/3 rpm); with changer, a tall spindle that would hold several records and automatically drop a new record on top of the previous one when it had finished playing, a combination cartridge with both 78 and microgroove styli and a way to flip between the two; and some kind of adapter for playing the 45s with their larger center hole.


  • The creation of the Doo-wop sound:
    Doo-wop is a genre of music that was developed in African-American communities all across America achieving mainstream popularity in the the 1950s and early '60s. Built upon vocal harmony, doo-wop was one of the most mainstream, pop-oriented R&B styles of the time. In it's beginning, singers would gather on street corners, and in subways, generally in groups of three to six. They sang acapella arrangements, and would mimic individual instruments since instruments were little used: the bass singing "bom-bom-bom", a guitar rendered as "shang-a-lang" and brass riffs as "dooooo -wop-wop".


  • A mix of bluesman Robert Johnson recordings entitled King of the Delta Blues Singers is released, from recordings made in 1936 and 1937. At the time, no photographs of the late blues singer were known, and he was considered a "sort of invisible pop star".


  • Allan and Sandra Jaffe open Preservation Hall in New Orleans, a music venue that helped revitalize the city's jazz scene, and was the only venue in the city at the time to host the traditional black jazz performers.


  • The Famous Ward Singers are the first gospel group to perform in nightclubs.


  • The Valadiers become the first white Motown group with their recording of "Greetings, This Is Uncle Sam".



 Grammy winners in 1961:
    The 3rd Annual Grammy Awards were held on April 13, 1961 at Los Angeles and New York. They recognized musical accomplishments by the performers for the year 1960.

    Best Classical Performance - Vocal Soloist
  • Leontyne Price for A Program of Song - Leontyne Price Recital


  • Best Performance - Folk
  • Harry Belafonte for "Swing Dat Hammer"


  • Best Jazz Composition of More Than Five Minutes Duration
  • Gil Evans & Miles Davis for Sketches of Spain


  • Best Vocal Performance Single Record or Track, Female (Pop)
  • Ella Fitzgerald for "Mack the Knife"


  • Best Vocal Performance Album, Female (Pop)
  • Ella Fitzgerald for Mack the Knife - Ella in Berlin


  • Best Vocal Performance Single Record or Track, Male (Pop)
  • Ray Charles for "Georgia on My Mind"


  • Best Vocal Performance Album, Male (Pop)
  • Ray Charles for The Genius of Ray Charles


  • Best Performance by a Band for Dancing (Pop)
  • Count Basie for Dance With Basie


  • Best Performance by a Pop Single Artist (Pop)
  • Ray Charles for "Georgia on My Mind"


  • Best Rhythm & Blues Performance
  • Ray Charles for "Let the Good Times Roll"




divider for amazing blacks


the meaning of cool
How did "acting" Cool begin for African Americans?

It seems like it's been around forever and
expected of every black kid growing up



For most blacks, cool started on the southern plantations. Opportunists slavemasters devised a way for slaves to work harder and reap the benefits of their labor. During the year at a chosen plantation slave masters would hold a "Corn Shucking Festival." Slaves from nearby plantations would also join this event with their owner's permission, so it was almost like a community gathering of all the local slaves, with greedy slavemasters making all the money.

The slave who shucked the most corn won an award, sometimes cash or a suit of clothes. Anyone who found a red ear of corn also received a reward - perhaps a kiss from a young woman or a jug of whiskey. It was at these events that the term Shuckin' and jivin' came into existence by the slaves while working and telling tall stories, talking smack, and joking around with each other.

These gatherings, even though involving hard work had to be an event looked forward to by the slaves, because it was one of the few times during the year blacks had a chance to interact with one another. Shuckin' and jivin' would become a tool the slaves would use to convince their masters of an untruth, and even among themselves. It was an early form of being cool.
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Corn-Shucking+Festival

After slavery blacks were free (sort of) to do as they pleased. Most blacks wanted to assimilate into American culture very much but were shut out by the white racist. African and European culture met head on in what was supposed to be fair in America guaranteed by our Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, but blacks didn't stand a chance.


Why, what happened?

Because most whites banded together by breaking the law and made blacks second class citizens and would go on to murder, lynch, rape, humiliate them all the way until the 1960s Civil Rights movement. After Lincoln, every single United States President was aware of this and did nothing. Whites achieved like crazy and prospered while blacks lagged far behind and got along the best way they knew how.

Blacks disliked whites very much for this terrible treatment and instead of violent disobedience, they protested by living their lives opposite of white culture. I mean let's face it, why would blacks want to imitate or become a part of a race of people that hated them?

This is when being cool became a symbol of white resistance and protest. Being cool would show you were down with the struggle. During slavery, we had already created our language which was AAVE and many blacks communicated this way. Any black that did not use it was looked down as trying to act white, joining the enemy sort of speak.

We developed our own way of walking with a proud gait, (George Jefferson strut) our own style of music, our own style of dance, our own style of food, our own style of worship, that didn't have anything in common with white folks and that suited blacks just fine. We were poor, but we were proud and cool and everyone who practiced these traits was cool and a part of the resistance.

In the process, we were creating a new culture that was admired over the world. Blacks have always had a remarkable ability to create something out of nothing. But sadly there was significant risk with this lifestyle in a great country such as America.

What were the downfalls?

Oscar Micheaux felt it was wrong for blacks to live this way in America. Oscar was an African American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 movies and he is regarded as the first major African-American feature filmmaker, the most successful African-American filmmaker of the first half of the twentieth century and the most prominent producer of race films. He produced both silent movies and "talkies" after the industry changed to incorporate speaking actors.

cool black americans


Oscar felt that blacks should become aggressive and use their brainpower in achieving instead of just settling for what the white man doled out. This man lived in some of the most racist times in American history, but he didn't let that stop him from fulfilling his dreams and doing it the legal way.

Evidently, Oscar had a brother who was the very cool type and was content on just putting up a show, or a front as living a successful life. We all know the type. A person that was living beyond his means. Blacks of his day called this way of living “the good life.”

Oscar didn't like it and was very upset with his brother. He later wrote in his book and discussed the culture of doers who want to accomplish, and those who see themselves as victims of injustice and hopelessness, and do not want to step out and try to succeed, but instead like to dress up, act cool and pretend to be successful while living the city lifestyle in poverty.

cool black americans


Oscar understood that education doesn't belong only to white people, it's a gift for all humanity to better ourselves, and honestly the best-proven way. Chinese, Japanese, Middle-Eastern and all other non-white nations understand this and have prospered by education. It's one of humanities treasure to learn.

But many blacks associated education with white and stayed far away from it, to continue with their cool lifestyle. A foolish mistake, and just what racist whites want you to believe.

Early Europeans completely dominated the Africans because they were better educated. They had guns we had spears, you do the math. In Africa our ancestors didn't value education, but traditions and silly ones at that. But that didn't save them. Education would have, though.

So without a doubt, it is entirely wrong to associate teaching and learning to white people. Many of us would look down upon another black who tried to better himself through education by saying they were trying to act white, and it wasn't cool. Racist whites laughed at us for believing this way because they knew we would always be behind.

After the 1960s, when our full Civil Rights were finally restored, many blacks chose to live the more standard American way by attending school to learn. But many also wanted to remain trapped in time with the old AAVE living in what they still perceived as defiance to the white American way of doing things. But were they only hurting themselves?

Later in time, being cool had become so prevalent in the black community it confused many kids, because they didn't quite understand if they were going to hang out with the cool kids or the so-called boring kids who liked to read and learn. At an early age, they are at a critical crossroad. Taking the cool route may seem easier, and a lot of fun, but would be a devastating mistake.

After the Civil Rights era we now have the opportunity to attend school and achieve as much as we can, but being cool has snatched many of the black kids and locked them into a culture hating education and in the process ruining their young lives.

Many entertainment figures reap much money from this cool culture by portraying cool as, well cool. They tell impressionable ones what's cool to hear, talk about, wear, eat, etc. and at the same time padding their cool humongous bank accounts.

These even get on television and flaunt their riches in a youngster's face never explicitly teaching on how they might be as successful, without being dishonest, stealing or selling drugs. Education is not cool for them to preach.

One thing is for sure, being cool can be a lot of fun and there's no denying that. Everybody wants to be liked, and it seems like cool people are respected and admired the most, from the clothes they wear to the type of songs they listen to the way they talk, the effortless way they seem to accomplish every task is amazing.

They possess incredible confidence. But truthfully everything they've accomplished wouldn't have been possible without the sacrifices of our wonderful ancestors. So don't you agree we owe a particular moral responsibility to them?

Kids should remember cool is not the real deal, It's a game we can't get caught up in. Our ancestors endured so much so we could achieve. We should never forget that. That's what this site was created. Browse through its pages, and you're going to read stories of amazing blacks.

They made it possible for us, and we're sure they would advise us to achieve through education first and foremost and save the cool for the weekends, and I ain't Shuckin and Jivin!

the meaning of cool


Resources:
By White House (Pete Souza) / Maison Blanche (Pete Souza) (The Official White House Photostream[1]) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
By Senate Office of Richard Lugar [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
https://pixabay.com/en/flag-united-states-american-waving-40724/



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children fashion
Kids Fashions from Stockton, California
in the 60s

photo #106-yr-1960

girls fashion
1960s Girls Fashions
photo #106-yr-1960

360 Waves hairstyle
360 Waves hairstyle
photo #104-yr-1950

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

     Fashions in 1961

  Popular Fashions:
  • Bellbottoms

  • Miniskirts

  • Tie Dye T-shirts

  • Turtlenecks


  • Men & Women Hairstyles:
    The Afro was the hairstyle of choice. If you could grow a big one, you were badd. Men, women and kids wore afros if they could. Some of our peoples hair was so kinky, an afro wasn't a choice. Kinky haired (or we would lovingly call them nappy headed) women and girls would have to constantly get their hair straightened or braided. Men and boys with kinky hair would have to break out the conk or straightening comb or either get a Covadis haircut. Waves hairstyles was generally worn by men. The hair is cropped short to the head in the styling of a Caesar cut. There are brushing techniques that will result in the resemblance of "oceanic waves" in the hair. We would steal our sisters nylons and use them for a haircap.


  • Braiding Hairstyles:
    Historically, hair braiding was not a paid trade. Since the African diaspora, in the 20th and 21st centuries it has developed as a multi-million dollar business in such regions as the United States and western Europe. An individual's hair groomer was usually someone whom they knew closely. Sessions included shampooing, oiling, combing, braiding, and twisting, plus adding accessories.




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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1960s

 dogs chasing kids

blacklight
Fluorescent body paint. Paints and decorations that fluoresce under black light are used in theater and several art forms
photo #107-yr-1960

     
Our Community in 1961

 Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • 1960s - The term "Soul food," as it relates to cuisine, became very popular during the 1960s.

  • 1960s - adding a fluorescent blacklight glow to the room. White T-shirts and teeth would light up the room, secret symbols or slogans on posters would be revealed. These lights also appeared in nightclubs and theater productions around the country, creating a surreal atmosphere.

  • 1960s - Lava Lamps entranced people and consisted of an illuminated glass cylinder within which a colorful, wax like substance was heated.

  • The Metropolitan Opera invited Leontyne Price to sing a pair of performances as Aida in 1958, but she turned down the offer on the advice of friends, including Peter Herman Adler, director of NBC Opera. In his autobiography, William Warfield writes that Adler said, "Leontyne is to be a great artist. When she makes her debut at the Met, she must do it as a lady, not a slave.

  • Several of the groups of "freedom riders," as they are called, are attacked by angry mobs along the way. The program, sponsored by The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), involves more than 1,000 volunteers, black and white.


  • The United States Population is 179,323,175 with a total of 18,871,831 being African Americans. Things must be getting a little better because blacks are having more babies.



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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License


#100 -   Public Domain image - By Koch, Eric / Anefo [CC-BY-SA-3.0-nl], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image - By Friedman-Abeles, New York, photographer. (eBay item photo frontphoto back) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   Public Domain image - By Official White House Photo by Pete Souza (P120612PS-0463 (direct link)) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   By Siebbi (Forest Whitaker) [ CC-BY-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image - By The Rotograph Co. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#105 -   Public Domain image - By New York World-Telegram and the Sun staff photographer [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#106 -   Public Domain image -
https://pixabay.com/en/athletics-runner-man-sport-692726/

#107 -   Public Domain image -
This work is in the public domain because it was published in the United States between 1923 and 1977 and without a copyright notice. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Marvelettes_1963.jpg


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