blast from the past

blast from the past
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annual hamite award

OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1925:
Amanda Berry Smith
    Amanda Berry Smith was a former slave who became an inspiration to thousands of women both black and white. Her father was a trusted slave to his master's widow. She allowed him many privileges that others slaves didn't have. He was authorized to earn extra cash in his spare time, making husk mats and brooms, thereby earning enough money to purchase his freedom and the family.

    Growing up, Amanda had the advantage of learning to read and write. Her father made it a regular practice on Sunday mornings to read to his family from the Bible. Her mother helped her to learn reading before she was eight and was sent to school. Unlike many other slave children and adults, Amanda had the privilege of learning at an early age.

    When older, Amanda went to work near York, Pennsylvania, as the servant of a widow with five children. While there, she attended a revival service at the Methodist Episcopal Church. Prayer became a way of life for her and trusted God for shoes. She became well known for her beautiful voice and inspired teaching and hence, opportunities to evangelize in the South and West opened up for her.

    She was well liked by both blacks and whites. She always took special care in the way she dressed. She had her image and the image of all African American women to consider and took that seriously. Wherever she traveled, she wore a poke bonnet and a brown or black Quaker wrapper, and she carried her carpetbag suitcase. Being a preacher and traveling as much as Amanda did, she sought out her appearance thoroughly.

    She didn't want to play into the stereotype of the Jezebel or Mammie that racist had been spreading since slavery about the black woman. In 1876, she was invited to speak and sing in England traveling on a first class cabin provided by her friends. The captain asked her to conduct a religious service on board, and she was so modest that the other passengers spread word of her and resulted in her staying in England and Scotland for a year and a half.

    She funded The Amanda Smith Orphanage and Industrial Home for Abandoned and Destitute Colored Children. It was an institution for the poor and friendless colored children in a suburban neighborhood in Chicago. The facility provided a home for children to become self-reliant. She was dedicated and put forth a lot of energy for the home. These kids were fortunate to have such a friend on their side.

    We would like to honor Amanda Berry Smith with the 1925 Hamite Award for her large-hearted contributions to the American Negro. She certainly set an excellent example. She exhibited an undying love for her race and also the rest of humanity.

    Amanda Smith retired to Sebring, Florida in 1912 due to failing health. She died in 1915 at the age of 78.

annual hamite award
Amanda Berry Smith
photo#104-yr-1925




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How were blacks feeling in 1925?
sad mood of blacks

Life in America for the Negro in 1925, how can I explain it? Since the emancipation, we have made many gains but have a long way to go. Obstacles and roadblocks have been put in our path every step of the way.

During slavery, America was a very young country without an identity. A collection of immigrants without a soul. They had the law but didn't know who they were. Along comes the lowly negro and this fit their common purpose perfectly.

It was like they all said, OK fellow white brothers, we're the keepers of America and the Negro is the way we DON"T want to be like. We will measure and gauge ourselves against these lowly and disgusting human beings in everything we do because we are excellent and superior.

The Negro helped the different races of white people unite and find themselves. But they should feel ashamed about what they found. Because it left a permanent stain on our country.

We heard about some of our younger ones acting up in the North. I wish they wouldn't do that. They should always remember our ancestors who sailed deep seas, with many dying. We should honor them by living a good clean life and not giving these white folks one excuse for putting our race down even further. Have pride in yourselves my young people.

In general, we are a loving race of individuals who tries to avoid conflict at all cost, even though we are portrayed as savages in the media, and speaking of the press, the newspapers of American has historically incited so much violence, we think they should be held accountable.

If you were to study just about every race riot, you will notice that the papers would print false stories to get the whites worked up into a mob, resulting in the deaths of many people. The media without a doubt has much blood on their hands.

Even though we are restricted in America, there are many who sneak through the cracks to success. We all know it's just a matter of time when we get a real president in office who will restore and enforce our civil rights, so we are just patiently waiting and making do the best we can.



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african american first

 For the year 1925:
  • Clifton R. Wharton, Sr. was the first African-American Foreign Service Officer.



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blacks in hockey
The Coloured Hockey League performed from 1895-1930
photo #119-yr-1910


blacks and football 1925

 Rube Foster
Rube Foster
photo #115-yr-1920

      Sports in 1925
  • The 1925 Colored World Series was the second edition of the championship series in Negro league baseball. The series featured a rematch between the Hilldale Club of Darby, Pennsylvania, champion of the Eastern Colored League (ECL), and the Kansas City Monarchs, champion of the Negro National League (NNL) and winner of the previous year's match in the first Colored World Series. In 1925, Hilldale won the best-of-nine series, five games to one.

  • Rube Foster organized the Negro National League, the first long-lasting professional league for African-American ballplayers, which operated from 1920 to 1931. He is known as the "father of Black Baseball." Foster adopted his longtime nickname, "Rube", as his official middle name later in life.


  • Robert L. "Bob" Douglas founded the New York Renaissance basketball team. Nicknamed the "Father of Black Professional Basketball", Douglas owned and coached the Rens from 1923 to 1949, guiding them to a 2,318-381 record (.859). He was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame as a contributor in 1972, the first African American enshrined.


  • 1895-1930 - Coloured Hockey League was an all-black ice hockey league founded in Nova Scotia in 1895, which featured teams from across Canada's Maritime Provinces. The Coloured League is credited by some as being the first league to allow the goaltender to leave his feet to cover a puck in 1900. This practice was not permitted elsewhere until the formation of the National Hockey League in 1917. Historians also claim that the first player to use the slapshot was Eddie Martin of the Halifax Eureka in 1906. Trivia: In the Revolutionary War, America and the British promised the black slaves freedom if they fought for their respective sides. Of course, we all know that America won the war but failed to keep its promise to the slaves and forced them back into slavery. President George Washington had to know about this and did nothing on the slave's behalf. On the other hand, the British kept their promise and transported these slaves who were also called black loyalist to Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, Africa to start a new life. The Coloured Hockey League players were from Nova Scotia and introduced exciting innovations to the game of hockey.


colored world series
photo #104-yr-1924

1925 Colored World Series
TEAMS1*23*456Games
Hilldale Club5337255
Kansas City Monarchs2513121
* indicates extra innings

  Location: Kansas City: Muehlebach Field (1,2,3,4)
  Philadelphia: Baker Bowl (5,6)
  Format: Best-of-nine
  Managers: Hilldale: Frank Warfield
  Kansas City: José Méndez
  Dates: October 1–10
  Hall of Famers: Hilldale: Judy Johnson, Biz Mackey, Louis Santop
  Kansas City: José Méndez (mgr.)





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equal rights for black people



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greed
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed! My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.



WHO IS THIS MAN?


Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974


We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
George Frost Kennan


This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.

In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.

Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan




Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr.

I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
Greedy man


I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.


My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)


Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.


 civil war


Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.


During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.


I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!


I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt


I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.


I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.


It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.


The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.


I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.


Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock. If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attenetion to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.


There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.


In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.


Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.


Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)


John Adams




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blacks and politics

 Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
photo #108-yr-1923

      Political Scene in 1925
  • Republican John Calvin Coolidge was the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929) A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. Analysis: John Calvin Coolidge probably came as close in character to Abraham Lincoln than any other President. This man had compassion, common sense and was a great motivator. He wanted all Americans to get along. At the beginning of his term, he had the blacks pumped up with his beautiful speeches, saying everything they wanted to hear. Consider one of John Calvin Coolidge's speeches:

    The propaganda of prejudice and hatred which sought to keep the colored men from supporting the national cause ultimately failed. The black man showed himself the same kind of citizen, moved by the same kind of patriotism, as the white man. They were tempted, but not one betrayed his country. ... They came home with many decorations and their conduct repeatedly won high commendation from both American and European commanders. ... No part of the community responded more willingly, more generously, more unqualifiedly, to the demand for individual extraordinary exertion, than did the members of the Negro race. Whether in the military service or in the large mobilization of industrial resources which the war required, the Negro did his part precisely as did the white man. He drew no color line when patriotism made its call upon him. He gave precisely as his white fellow citizens gave, to the limit of resources and abilities, to help the general cause. Thus the American Negro established his right to the gratitude and appreciation which the Nation has been glad to accord.

    Dang, almost brought tears to my eyes. Finally a president who can feel black people's pain!!! Mr. Coolidge was a President who knew a little about Negroes and the problems they were facing. He surrounded himself with black advisors who were actually out of touch with the black community and were only interested in patronage jobs for their following. These black advisors would give him bad advice, one, in particular, was William H. Lewis, who had attended Amherst College the same time as Coolidge. Lewis told the President to 'play politics' with W.E.B. Dubois, offering him a high political position so Dubois would write favorably about him. Dubois recognized the 'political play' and declined the offer. Another example was Jay Scott who later became the most influential Afro-American political adviser to the President. During the time he spent with Coolidge he only brought up segregation and the lynching issue of a couple of occasions. But he did assist in getting funding Howard University and other acts that benefited blacks. But how can I put this in a way that doesn't sound ungrateful for what he did do? His help, though appreciated was mainly cosmetic. He ended up letting down many blacks. The fact that he got bad advice from questionable black leaders doesn't matter. I'm sure he got bad advice from white advisors from time to time, but he still went on to get the job done. Negro voters who had voted Republican since Lincoln began to give second thoughts of remaining loyal to a party who refused to offer real concrete help and reform in a racist society. Sorry, John Calvin Coolidge. I think you were sincere, but there was not enough motivation to match your memorable speeches. I was pulling for you, but history proves that you didn't tackle Negro issues like Abe Lincoln did.

    Sources:
    http://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/




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Treasures of humanity


race issues in america
"Colored Waiting Room" sign from
segregationist era United States
photo #100 -year-1878

A man lynched from a tree
A man lynched from a tree. Face partially concealed by angle and headgear.
photo #109-yr-1906

      Race in 1925
  • 1925 - Ossian Sweet -  was an American physician in Detroit, Michigan noted for his armed self-defense in 1925 of his newly purchased home in a white neighborhood against a mob trying to force him out. He, his family and friends, who had helped defend his home, were acquitted by an all-white jury of murder charges in what came to be known as the Sweet Trials. Analysis: This man has one heck of a story to tell. It would make an excellent drama on television. Here was a simple man who achieved to become a doctor and all he wanted was a nice home for his family, which they didn't have in the black neighborhoods, so he moved to a white section of the city, and that's when all hell broke loose. He was prepared for violence from white mobs, and when they showed up, he shot two and killed one. They arrested him and his family and those who helped him out. He was eventually acquitted, but after the trial, his young wife died of T.B. and also his brother. He ended up losing money and committed suicide. The thing that struck me as odd was that he was not the aggressor but was arrested. The many mob scenes of whites killing blacks up to that point in history didn't have trials; I honestly can't recall any whites being punished. It was just a blatant disrespect of the law of the land and a horrific disregard for American civil rights. But it's only the lowly Negro, so I guess that makes it O.K.

  • 1925 - The Ku Klux Klan demonstrated its popularity by holding a parade in Washington DC; as many as 40,000 male and female members of the Klan march down Pennsylvania Avenue. In 1925, an estimated 5,000,000 members belonged to the Ku Klux Klan, making it the largest fraternal organization in the United States.

  • 1925 - There were seventeen known lynchings -  of African Americans in the United States in 1925.



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Hello, I would like to introduce you to a not so very nice person by the name of JIM CROW

Yes, he was as stupid as he looked and caused much pain for the Negro race, because so called intelligent American people did exactly what he told them to do for many years until the sixties Civil Rights movement.


Jim Crow laws
The phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these became known as Jim Crow laws.
photo#104-yr-1882


    Institutionalized economic, educational and social disadvantages for Blacks, who really never got a fair shake and are constantly compared to other races as to why there are so many negatives with our race of people. Maybe this has something to do with it.

  • "Separate but equal" status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans.

  • Patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants.

  • Unfair bank lending practices.

  • Job discrimination.

  • Discriminatory union practices for decades.

  • Segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation.

  • Segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.

  • U.S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces.


  • Jim Crow owns the deed to every single ghetto in America, and the American people who were indifferent to his practices were the co-signers. Jim Crow was without a doubt powerful enough to demoralize a sizable segment of the African American community for generations to come. But even though Jim Crow was dealt a vicious blow in the sixties, he still lives in the form of silent "Crow" codes in people's hearts.



    Incomplete list of Jim Crow laws by state enacted between 1876 and 1965

    NOTE:
    Miscegenation is a word that's not used much today, but during Jim Crow was very popular. It means the mixing of different racial groups through marriage.


    Arizona - Segregation, miscegenation, voting. Passed six segregation laws: four against miscegenation and two school segregation statutes, and a voting rights statute that required electors to pass a literacy test. The state's miscegenation laws prohibited blacks as well as Indians and Asians from marrying whites and were not repealed until 1962. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    California - Miscegenation - The 1850 law prohibiting marriage between white persons and Negroes or mulattoes was amended, adding "Mongolian." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Colorado - Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and white persons "absolutely void." Penalty: Fine between $50 and $550, or imprisonment between three months and two years, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Miscegenation
    photo# library


    Connecticut - Education, Upheld school segregation as originally authorized by statute of 1869. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Florida - "The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Georgia - "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Illinois - Chicago adopted racially restrictive housing covenants beginning in 1927. In 1948, the United States Supreme Court ruled that enforcement of racial restrictive covenants was unconstitutional. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Indiana - Education, Separate schools to be provided for black children. If not a sufficient number of students to organize a separate school, trustees were to find other means of educating black children. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Kansas - Segregation laws in Kansas dealt primarily with education. The state constitution of 1859 specified separate African American schools. This practice continued until 1954. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Kentucky - Provided that all persons, firms, or corporations create separate bathroom facilities for members of the white and African American races employed by them or allowed to come into the business. Also, different rooms to eat in as well as separate eating and drinking utensils were required to be provided for members of the white and African American races. Not following this law gave to the offender a misdemeanor, a fine of $100 to $1,000, or 60 days to one year in prison. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Louisiana - "Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Maine - In 1795, a law prohibiting intermarriage between whites and blacks was repealed. Hooray, Good For You Maine!!!

    Maryland - "All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Mississippi - "printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Missouri - "Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored" (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Montana - Miscegenation, ] Prohibited intermarriage between whites and Negroes, Chinese and Japanese. Penalty: Misdemeanor, carrying a fine of $500 or imprisonment of one month, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Nebraska - Miscegenation, Declared marriage between whites and a Negro or mulatto as illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, with a fine up to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail up to six months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Nevada - Education, Negroes, Asians, and Indians prohibited from attending public schools. The Board of Trustees of any district could establish a separate school for educating Negroes, Asians, and Indians, if deemed advisable. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Jim Crow laws
    photo#105-yr-1882


    New Mexico - "Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    North Carolina - "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    North Dakota - Miscegenation, Cohabitation between blacks and whites prohibited. Penalty: 30 days to one year imprisonment, or $100 to $500 fine. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Ohio - Miscegenation, Unlawful for a person of "pure white blood, who intermarries, or has illicit carnal intercourse, with any Negro or person having a distinct and visible admixture of African blood." Penalty: Fined up to $100, or imprisoned up to three months, or both. Any person who knowingly officiates such a marriage charged with misdemeanor and fined up to $100 or imprisoned for three months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oklahoma - Funerals, Blacks were not allowed to use the same hearse as whites. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oregon - Miscegenation, Unlawful for any white person to intermarry with any "Negro, Chinese, or any person having one-quarter or more Negro, Chinese or Kanaka blood, or any person having more than one-half Indian blood." Penalty: Imprisonment in the penitentiary or the county jail for between three months and one year. Those who licensed or performed such a ceremony could be jailed for three months to one year, or fined between $100 and $1,000. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Oklahoma - Education, Black children prohibited from attending Pittsburgh schools. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Rhode Island - Miscegenation, Prohibited intermarriage. Penalty: $1,000 fine, or up to six months' imprisonment. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    South Carolina - "No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Jim Crow laws
    photo#106-yr-1882


    South Dakota - Enacted three miscegenation laws between 1809 and 1913, and a 1952 statute that required adoption petitions to state the race of both the petitioner and child. A 1913 miscegenation law broadened the list of races unacceptable as marriage partners for whites to include persons belonging to the "African, Korean, Malayan, or Mongolian race." This law reflected the nation's growing tension over the massive waves of immigrants entering the country during the early twentieth century. The miscegenation law was repealed in 1957. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Tennessee - Miscegenation, Penalty for intermarriage between whites an blacks was labeled a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to five years. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Texas - Voting rights, Required electors to pay poll tax. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Utah - Miscegenation, Laws of Utah, 1888. Intermarriage prohibited between a Negro and a white person, and between a "Mongolian" and a white person. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Virginia - "The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are at this moment required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Washington - Restrictive Housing Covenants, Beginning in the 1920s, Seattle realtors frequently discriminated against minorities. In November 1927 the Capitol Hill development used a covenant that read: "The parties agree each with the others that no part of the lands owned by them shall ever be used or occupied by or sold, conveyed, leased, rented or given to Negroes or any person of Negro blood." An April 1928 covenant for the Broadmoor subdivision read: "No part of said property hereby conveyed shall ever be used or occupied by any Hebrew or any person of the Ethiopian, Malay or any Asiatic race..." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    West Virginia - Black citizens are prohibited from serving on juries. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Wyoming - Education, Separate schools could be provided for colored children when there were fifteen or more colored children within any school district. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)

    Complete listing of American Jim Crow laws:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jim_Crow_law_examples_by_state



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slang and memorable quotes
Cab Calloway
Cab Calloway, who wrote a Hepster's dictionary about the language of jive.
photo #100


Slang trivia:
The term 'Baby' was for a long time, a racist expression meant to "denigrate" (to criticize unfairly, to say bad things about a person or thing) African-Americans. That all changed with the advent of the hit song, I Can't Give You Anything but Love, Baby, (1920s) From then on the expression, 'Baby' joined many other words used to express a term of endearment.

     sLANG tALK in 1925
  • Jive talk - harlmese speech, slang talking

  • Bringer-Downer - a disappointment

  • Alligator - a devotee of jazz or swing music

  • Chops - refers to any musician's level of ability

  • Frail - a noun for any hepster woman

  • G-man - government man, especially one harasses people

  • Gage - marijuana, particularly associated with Louis Armstrong

  • Gate - any man, usually used as a greeting

  • Hep - in the know, hip

  • Hep cat - smart and knowledgeable person, also hipster

  • High - happy, content, mellow

  • Hoochie Coocher - hot woman who dances laying down

  • Hoochie coochie - sexy dance

  • Jeff - opposite of hep; unhip, uncool

  • Jitterbug - a dance created in the 1920s and 1930s

  • Light up - to light a stick of T or reefer

  • Lid - a Prince Albert tobacco can filled to the lid

  • Man! - commonly used as an interjection or for emphasis

  • Mighty Mezz - an expertly rolled joint

  • Mop - woman, often meaning another hepster's girlfriend

  • Ofay - police

  • Puff - to smoke weed

  • Stick of tea - joint, reefer, left-handed cigarette

  • Zoot suit - suits popular with dancers of the swing era



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The Homesteader
The Homesteader (1919) is a lost black-and-white silent race film by African American
author and filmmaker Oscar Micheaux. This is a newspaper advert for the film.

photo #108-yr-1919

black Movies in America
Movies in America


Evelyn Preer
Actress Evelyn Preer
photo #104-yr-1896

Oscar Micheaux
American film director Oscar Micheaux
photo #107-yr-1919

Rose McClendon
Actress Rose McClendon
photo #101-yr-1884

     Movies in 1925
  • Evelyn Preer was a pioneering African-American stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Preer was regarded by many as the greatest actress of her time and was known within the black community as "The First Lady of the Screen"

  • 1925 - Oscar Micheaux was an African-American author, film director and independent producer of more than 44 films. The first of which was released in 1919 called The Homesteader which was met with critical and commercial success. Trivia: Image is everything and Oscar recognized that fact. Up unto the time, he began producing movies; the Negro was portrayed as lazy, weak morals, thieves, dishonest savage people you couldn't trust. Well guess what? Oscar changed all of that with his movies. He put positive role models on the silver screen and finally the world was able to see the Negro in their right light, as intelligent, well to do honest people, hard working, industrious human beings who loved their families. Oscar was a crucial element of Negro development in this country. Are we continuing to lift the image of our people in this country today?

  • African American Charles Sidney Gilpin became one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. In 1920 he was the first black American to receive the Drama League of New York's annual award, as one of the ten people who had done the most that year for American theater.

  • 1920s - Rose McClendon was a leading African-American Broadway actress of the 1920s. McClendon was a contemporary of Paul Robeson, Ethel Barrymore, Lynn Fontanne and Langston Hughes.



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famous african american birthdays

Gene  Baker
Gene Baker
photo #101-yr-1925



Roy Brown
Roy Brown
photo #110-yr-1950

BB King
B.B. King
photo #109-yr-2009

     Famous Birthdays in 1925
  • April 14, 1925 - Eugene "Jug" Ammons, also known as "The Boss", jazz tenor saxophonist

  • May 19, 1925 - Malcolm X, African-American Muslim minister and a human rights activist.

  • June 15, 1925 - Gene Baker was an American Major League Baseball infielder who played for the Chicago Cubs and Pittsburgh Pirates during eight seasons between 1953 and 1961.

  • July 2, 1925 - Medgar Wiley Evers, African-American civil rights activist from Mississippi.

  • July 20, 1925 - Frantz Omar Fanon, a Martinique-born Afro-French psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and writer.

  • September 10, 1925 - Roy Brownwas an American R&B singer, songwriter and musician, who had a significant influence on the early development of rock and roll.

  • Sept 16, 1925 - B.B. King, American blues musician, singer, songwriter, and guitarist.

  • Dec 8, 1925 - Sammy Davis, Jr.American entertainer, primarily a dancer and singer.



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famous african american deaths

George Edwin Taylor
Campaign poster for George E. Taylor, Presidential Candidate, National Liberty Party, U.S.A., 1904
photo #102-yr-1925



     Famous Deaths in 1925
  • January 11, 1925 - Theophilus Gould Steward was an American author, educator, clergyman. He was a U.S. Army chaplain and Buffalo Soldier of 25th U.S. Colored Infantry.

  • March 1, 1925 - Homer Adolph Plessy was the American Louisiana Creole of Color plaintiff in the United States Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.

  • June 26, 1925 - Margaret Murray Washington was the principal of Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, then Tuskegee University. She was the third wife of Booker T. Washington She was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1972.

  • December 1925 - George Edwin Taylor was a Black American who was the candidate of the National Negro Liberty Party for the office of president of the United States in 1904.

  • 1925 - Daniel Alexander Payne Murray was an assistant librarian at the Library of Congress; a bibliographer, author, politician, and historian.

  • 1925 - Junius G. Groves was a successful businessman.

  • 1925 - Robert Herberton Terrell was the first Negro judge in Washington, D.C.



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famous african american weddings

Alonzo Lonnie Johnson
Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson
photo #103-yr-1925

     Famous Weddings in 1925
  • 1925 - Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson  and  Mary Johnson were wed in holy matrimony.



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juke joints, party for black people
chitlin circuit

Cotton Club
Cotton Club on 125th Street in New York City
photo #109-yr-1923

Cotton Club
Cotton Club dancer Mildred Dixon - Duke Ellington's wife
photo #110-yr-1923

     It's a Party in 1925
  • 1923 - the Cotton Club on 142nd St & Lenox Ave in the heart of Harlem, New York was operated by white New York gangster Owney Madden. Madden used the Cotton Club as an outlet to sell his “#1 Beer” to the prohibition crowd. Although the club was briefly closed several times in the 1920s for selling alcohol, the owners’ political connections allowed them to reopen quickly. The club was a whites-only establishment even though it featured many of the best black entertainers of the era.

  • Chitlin' Circuit:
  • Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:

    The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.

    Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!

    Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.




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soul music orgin


Adelaide Louise Hall
Adelaide Louise Hall
photo #111-yr-1901

Thomas
Thomas "Fats" Waller
photo #117-yr-1920

Alonzo Lonnie Johnson
Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson
photo #103-yr-1925

Josephine Baker dancing the Charleston
Josephine Baker dancing the Charleston
at the Folies-Bergère, Paris

photo #111-yr-1929

     Music in 1925

  Popular Soul Dances:
  • The Breakaway

  • Charleston

  • Lindy Hop

  • The Black Bottom

  • The Foxtrot

  • The Hully Gully is a type of unstructured line dance often considered to have originated in the sixties, but is also mentioned some forty years earlier as a dance common in the black juke joints in the first part of the twentieth century.



  Musical Happenings in 1925:
  • Adelaide Louise Hall was hired to join the cast of the Chocolate Kiddies revue in New York, where they rehearsed before setting sail for Europe. The first tour started in Hamburg, Germany, on 17 May 1925, and ended in Paris, France in December 1925 visiting many major cities in-between.

  • 1925 - The Oklahoma City Blue Devils was the premier Southwest territory jazz band in the 1920s. Originally called Billy King's Road Show, it disbanded in Oklahoma City in 1925 where Walter Page renamed it. The name Blue Devils came from the name of a gang of fence cutters operating during the early days of the American West. The Blue Devils disbanded in 1933, after which Basie recruited most of the group's members to join his group, which had begun in 1931, but then changed the name to the Count Basie Orchestra.

  • 1925 - Alonzo "Lonnie" Johnson begins his performing career after winning first prize at a blues concert. He will become "probably the first improvising guitarist to base his style on cleanly articulated single-string lines rather than heavily strummed chords.

  • 1925 - Paul Robeson performs at a critically acclaimed concert, his debut, as a bass baritone, in Greenwich Village; his performance is the first "program consisting entirely of Negro spirituals.

  • 1925 - Bennie Moten's territory band releases "South", a classic hit recording that helps establish the band's career as one of the most successful and prolifically recording territory band

  • 1925 - The first African-American preacher to be recorded is Calvin P. Dixon.

  • 1925 - Florence Price is the first female African American to gain international renown as a composer, winning her first of two Holstein Awards this year.

  • 1925 - Blind Lemon Jefferson begins making his first recordings, for Paramount Records, which include his first two hits, "Booster Blues" and "Dry Southern Blues".

  • 1920s - "Fats" Waller was an important contributor to the popular stride piano style.




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african americans and religion


How did religion begin for the American Negro?

Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.

What is fetishism you may ask?


 Traditional  Benin Voodoo Dance
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance

Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.

But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.

In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.


Religion definition:
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.



Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.

But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.

Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.

This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.

Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.

During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.

But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.


The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:


Pentacostal -
 Pentacostal Movement
    William Seymour
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015

Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.

Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.

So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.




The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
 The Church Of God in Christ baptism
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
photo#112-yr-2015

The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.



A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.



Baptists -
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.



Islam -
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.

But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.

Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.

So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.




Science -
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.


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Claude McKay
Claude McKay
photo #102-yr-1889

black womens fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s
photo#112-yr-1920

black womens fashion in 1920s
Women's fashion in 1920s
photo#113-yr-1920

black men's fashion in 1920s
Men's fashion in 1920s
photo#114-yr-1920

     Fashions in 1925

  Popular Fashions:

  • Overview:
    During the 1920s, the notion of keeping up with fashion trends and expressing oneself through material goods seized middle-class Americans as never before. Purchasing new clothes, new appliances, new automobiles, new anything indicated one's level of prosperity. Being considered old-fashioned, out-of-date, or—worse yet—unable to afford stylish new products was a fate many Americans went to great lengths to avoid.


  • During the Harlem Renaissance, Black America’s clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. African-Americans wore clothing that was far from somber. Women were dressed in wide hats garlanded with flowers, modest veils, silk stockings that were held up by garters, open-toed slippers, and the low-slung dress, possibly with a ribbon at the hip. Though the 1920s cloche, a close-fitting number usually made of felt or wool, was extremely popular for casual wear and was worn gaily pulled down over the eyes. Popular by the 1930s was the trendy beret hat with stand-up or egret feather. Men wore zoot suits which were wide-legged, high-waisted, pegged trousers, and a long coat with wide padded shoulders and lapels. They also wore wide-brimmed hats, hand-colored socks, white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. African Americans also expressed respect for their heritage through a style of leopard-skin coats indicating the great power of the infamous African animal.


  • Trivia:
    A young Malcolm X described the zoot suit as: "a killer-diller coat with a drape shape, reet pleats and shoulders padded like a lunatic's cell".




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black pullman porter

black pullman porter

Pullman porters, who were largely black, are widely credited with contributing to the development of the black middle class in America. Before the Civil War, sleeping cars were not in use. George Pullman came up with the brilliant idea of making rail travel a memorable event with servers to cater to whites every need.

During slavery, most whites didn't own slaves and this gave them an opportunity to experience that. Pullman became the number #1 employer of blacks in the country. He was a tight businessman though because the pay was lousy with the porters working over 400 hours a month. Porters also had to purchase their own clothing and accessories. They received most of their income by tips.

But the job was steady work and that meant alot for black families. Famous porters of old included, Thurgood Marshall, Oscar Micheaux, Malcolm X and the photojournalist Gordon Parks.



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United States Census for Negroes
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1920s

James Weldon Johnson
James Weldon Johnson
photographed by Carl Van Vechten

photo #107-yr-1913

Eddie South
American jazz violinist Eddie South
with a conk hairdo.

photo #104-yr-1920

Our Community in 1925
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:

  • August 1, 1925 - The National Bar Association (NBA) was established in 1925 as the "Negro Bar Association" after Gertrude Rush, George H. Woodson, S. Joe Brown, James B. Morris, and Charles P. Howard, Sr. were denied membership in the American Bar Association.

  • 1925 - New Negro is a term popularized during the Harlem Renaissance implying a more outspoken advocacy of dignity and a refusal to submit quietly to the practices and laws of Jim Crow racial segregation. The term "New Negro" was made popular by Alain LeRoy Locke.

  • August 2, 1925 - The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was, in 1925, the first labor organization led by African Americans to receive a charter in the American Federation of Labor (AFL).

  • James Weldon Johnson  was awarded the Spingarn Medal from the NAACP for outstanding achievement by an American Negro.

  • 1925 - In the 1920s, some believed the conk hairdo served as a rite of passage from adolescence into adulthood for black males. Because of the pain involved in the process, the conk represented masculinity and virility within the community. Many of the popular musicians of the early to mid 20th century, including Chuck Berry, Little Richard, James Brown, and the members of The Temptations and The Miracles, were well known for sporting the conk hairstyle.

  • The United States Population is 105,710,620 with a total of 10,463,131 being African Americans.



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RESOURCES:


Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAlike_3.0_Unported_License

#100 -   Public Domain image - By Mills Artists; photographer: James Kriegsmann, New York (eBay item photo) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#101 -   Public Domain image - By Bowman [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#102 -   Public Domain image - By National Liberty Party [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#103 -   Public Domain image - Russell Lee [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

#104 -   Public Domain image - By Norman Barton Wood, artist not separately acknowledged [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons


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