Blast From The Past:
OUR HAMITE AWARD WINNER FOR 1905:
Robert Sengstacke Abbott
Robert Sengstacke Abbott was an African-American lawyer, newspaper publisher and founder of The Chicago Defender newspaper and The Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic. He was born on November 24, 1870, in St. Simons Island, Georgia from former slave parents.
Abbott studied the printing trade at Hampton Institute (now Hampton University) from 1892 to 1896. At Hampton, he sang with the Hampton Quartet and traveled very much. He received a law degree from Kent College of Law, Chicago, in 1898.
In 1905 he founded The Chicago Defender with a very small initial investment. The Defender, which became the most widely circulated African American newspaper in the country, came to be known as "America's Black Newspaper" and made Abbott one of the first self-made millionaires of African-American descent.
Tensions were building in the years surrounding World War I. Blacks were migrating from the South to the industrial centers of the north, which were in great need of workers to manufacture goods for the war. Sengstacke, through his writings in the Chicago Defender, captured those stories and encouraged blacks to leave the South for the North.
In his weekly, he showed pictures of Chicago and gave plenty of space for classifieds for housing. Also, Abbott wrote about how awful a place the South was to live in comparison to the idealistic North. Abbott's words described the North as a place of prosperity and justice. He felt his newspaper was providing a sacred service for his people and took it very seriously.
He created a list of nine goals that constituted the Defender's Bible:
1. Prejudice must be destroyed
2. Stop predudice at trade-unions
3. Representation in the President's Cabinet
4. Engineers, firemen, & conductors represented
5. Police forces represented with blacks
6. Government schools open to blacks
7 Motormen, conductors elevated
8. Federal legislation to abolish lynching
9. Full enfranchisement of all American citizens
The Chicago Defender not only encouraged people to migrate north for a better life, but to fight for an even better lifestyle once they got there.
Here's a man who was actually looking out for his own, and he was in a unique position to do just that. Thanks Robert Sengstacke Abbott for providing hope for a beatdown race of Negroes who refused to be defeated but were nevertheless very tired. We honor you with the 1905 Hamite Award, which is the same year you started your sensational and very useful newspaper, The Chicago Defender.
Abbott also spoke out against Miscegenation, claiming the government was attempting to regulate a person heart with laws which were wrong to do. Abbott died of Bright's disease in 1940 in Chicago, Illinois.
Robert Sengstacke Abbott |
|How were blacks feeling in 1905?
Lincoln and the Race Problem
by Theodore Roosevelt
February 13, 1905
New York City Republican Club
Excerpts from Theodore Roosevelt's speech on race relations.
"We of to-day, in dealing with all our fellow-citizens, white or colored, North or South should strive to show just the qualities that Lincoln showed - his steadfastness in striving after the right and his infinite patience and forbearance with those who saw that right less clearly than he did; his earnest endeavor to do what was best, and yet his readiness to accept the best that was practicable when the ideal best was unattainable; his unceasing effort to cure what was evil, coupled with his refusal to make a bad situation worse by any ill-judged or ill-timed effort to make it better."
"All good Americans who dwell in the North must, because they are good Americans, feel the most earnest friendship for their fellow-countrymen who reside in the South, a friendship all the greater because it is in the South that we find in its most acute phase one of the gravest problems before our people: the problem of so dealing with the man of one color as to secure him the rights that no one would grudge him if he were of another color. To solve this problem it is, of course, necessary to educate him to perform the duties, a failure to act which will render him a curse to himself and all around him. "
"The problem is so to adjust the relations between two races of different ethnic type that the rights of neither be abridged nor jeoparded; that the backward race be trained so that it may enter into the possession of true freedom while the forward race is enabled to preserve unharmed the high civilization wrought out by its forefathers."
"I fought beside colored troops at Santiago [Cuba], and I hold that if a man is good enough to be put up and shot at then, he is good enough for me to do what I can to get him a square deal."
Now wait one minute here, let me make sure I got this right.
The year is 1905. Since Reconstruction, the black person has been in a sad and demoralized state being denied their fundamental civil rights as American citizens.
At this point in history, most blacks are still living in the South and are struggling just to survive. They can't vote, don't have adequate schools like the whites, are residing in a racist separate but equal atmosphere and are shut out of good paying jobs, equal access to public accommodations, housing, fear of lynchings and the list goes on and on.
This man is the President of the United States and has an obligation to see things through for all citizens, not make grand speeches to soothe his conscience. Since the black person was a particular challenge as he called it and recognized the need for training blacks, why didn't he see it through? Why didn't he provide funding on a large scale for Negro education, housing, and medical? That would have proven his sincerity, but history shows he didn't care. All that blacks ever wanted was a square deal you mentioned Teddy.
This will be the beginning of many more Presidents making grand speeches but failing to act. Isn't history amazing the way it can prove motivation of individuals years later?
The Coloured Hockey League performed from 1895-1930
"Harvard's best baseball player", William Clarence Matthews
| Sports in 1905 |
- William Clarence Matthews became one of the standout baseball players, leading the Harvard team in batting average for the 1905 season.
- Charles W. Follis, a.k.a. "The Black Cyclone," was the first black professional football player. He played for the Shelby Blues of the "Ohio League" from 1902 to 1906.
- 1895-1930 - Coloured Hockey League was an all-black ice hockey league founded in Nova Scotia in 1895, which featured teams from across Canada's Maritime Provinces. The Coloured League is credited by some as being the first league to allow the goaltender to leave his feet to cover a puck in 1900. This practice was not permitted elsewhere until the formation of the National Hockey League in 1917. Historians also claim that the first player to use the slapshot was Eddie Martin of the Halifax Eureka in 1906. Trivia: In the Revolutionary War, America and the British promised the black slaves freedom if they fought for their respective sides. Of course, we all know that America won the war but failed to keep its promise to the slaves and forced them back into slavery. President George Washington had to know about this and did nothing on the slave's behalf. On the other hand, the British kept their promise and transported these slaves who were also called black loyalist to Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone, Africa to start a new life. The Coloured Hockey League players were from Nova Scotia and introduced exciting innovations to the game of hockey.
|| Famous African American Quotes |
William Clarence Matthews - Harvard's best baseball player
"I think it is an outrage that colored men are discriminated against in the big leagues. What a shame it is that black men are barred forever from participating in the national game. I should think that Americans should rise up in revolt against such a condition. Many negroes are brilliant players and should not be shut out because their skin is black. As a Harvard man, I shall devote my life to bettering the condition of the black man, and especially to secure his admittance into organized base ball"
William Clarence Matthews as quoted in the Boston Evening Traveller, July 15, 1905.
"Colored Waiting Room" sign from
segregationist era United States
photo #100 -year-1878
A man lynched from a tree. Face partially concealed by angle and headgear.
| Race in 1905 |
- 1905 - Lynchings - Fifty-seven black Americans are known to have been lynched in 1905.
WHO DOES THIS DETESTABLE LOOKING MONSTER REPRESENT? |
America began with the noblest of intentions. But she is no match for my voracious appetite of greed!
My power to influence is so great it will make folly of man's moral duty on earth and a mockery of what is truly just and righteous.
Hi, my name is Rapacity Prey Sr. |
I have been alive since the beginning and will always exist as long as man governs man. There is no shame in my game and proud to admit I've always been a greedy, self-serving bastard with a voracious appetite that cannot be filled. I have many followers who adore me although most don't believe I exist.
I control every aspect of your life without you viewing my beautiful face and hearing words coming from my mouth. For the most part, you obey my every command from my extensive communication networks. These include the printed word, radio, music, television and my favorite form in today's world, the internet.
My only objective in life is to gain wealth and to do this I must have power, which I abundantly possess. I make a huge financial profit from misery, death, and destruction and utilize my communication networks for others to take the blame. I'm a master at setting up smokescreens to do my dirty work. In fact, as mentioned earlier most don't believe I exist. (LOL)
Most people make my work easy because they refuse to peel back the layers of history to expose me. I have created religion against religion, race against race, husband against wife, parents against their children all to my advantage. I don't care one little bit because I'm getting paid in one form or another.
Let me tell you about some of my amazing accomplishments you may be familiar. I can't name them all because there are too many. Remember the Civil War that almost tore the country apart? I was behind that. That war was all about me getting paid, even though the majority of people thought it was about preserving the Union and ending slavery. I used man's hate against themselves to grow rich beyond all expectation during the War and Reconstruction period. It was me who got paid; my belly got super fat from that scheme.
During the Gilded Age, I made more wealth than I could count and have to admit was getting sloppy in my dirty work which resulted in the new Progressive Era which sought to clean greed and corruption from government. Well, who do you think it was that put these so-called righteous do-gooders in positions of authority? Come on now, don't be so gullible, at least put up a little fight to make this game more enjoyable.
I put people in charge to make it appear they were cleaning up the corruption and greediness which made them more cunning and cautious in providing me more wealth. I had my newspapers print how great and honorable Americans were and wouldn't put up for greed, and this made people feel great about their country because it made them feel proud and righteous above all others. What a folly! If walls could only speak!
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
We must be very careful when we speak of exercising "leadership" in Asia. We are deceiving ourselves and others when we pretend to have answers to the problems, which agitate many of these Asiatic peoples. Furthermore, we have about 50% of the world's wealth but only 6.3 of its population.
This disparity is particularly great as between ourselves and the peoples of Asia. In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships, which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our national security. To do so, we will have to dispense with all sentimentality and daydreaming, and our attention will have to be concentrated everywhere on our immediate national objectives. We need not deceive ourselves that we can afford today the luxury of altruism and world-benefaction.
In the face of this situation, we would be better off to dispense now with some the concepts which have underlined our thinking about the Far East. We should dispense with the aspiration to 'be liked' or to be regarded as the repository of a high-minded international altruism. We should stop putting ourselves in the position of being our brothers' keeper and refrain from offering moral and ideological advice. We should cease to talk about vague — and for the Far East — unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.
Written by Cold War strategist, George Kennan
Memo PPS23 (1948) "Memo PPS23", written 28 February 1948, declassified 17 June 1974
WHO IS THIS MAN? |
I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.
I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914.
I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street.
I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902–1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916.
I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints. The best he could do was to operate his racket in three districts. I operated on three continents.
Quoted by former U.S. Marine Corps major general, Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler became widely known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering
I have to admit there were some great men who put up a fight. President Roosevelt and his New Deal was a hard nut to crack. He belived he could defeat me and make America the respectable place it boasted. He even did something I hated very much in proposing a United Nations organization to prevent future wars. Now come on, you know I disliked that.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
I had made much money from World WarII. Over 60 million people died in that war, and I didn't lose one-night sleep. I had most Americans believing the war was a fight against the threat of losing democracy and had intelligent people digging out their backyards to create bunkers, that was hilarious to me.
I even had my propaganda machine fool self-righteous Americans into believing they won the war, but in actuality it was the Soviet Union who provided victory, defeating the Germans and Japan. My communications network was at the height of its glory. That war was about one thing, me getting paid.
It's sorrowful that around the world and especially Americans are so gullible and believe the lie that they are righteous above others and especially the white ones who I influenced to think they were somewhat better or superior to other races of people. I persuaded my servant Hitler to also believe he was better and superior to others and looked what happened to him. A straightforward and honest search of history would expose so much more about me, but most people are followers who jump on my propaganda bandwagon to believe what may appear to be true. But that's okay; I get paid.
The Vietnam War was one of my greatest achievements. Once again I used my communications in tricking people into believing the Communist were coming and would invade our good and precious land of America. I demanded war but that fool John Kennedy stood in my way and began to back track. Just about every one of my military leaders was livid with him because they knew war is how I get paid. We all know the outcome of John Kennedy. War = money.
I created the entire American culture for my purposes in persuading them to believe they are winners and hate losing at war. The Revoulunary war that I aided in victory went to their heads. That's why I loved LBJ when he succeeded Kennedy. He was a man after my heart. He bombed those poor people to smithereens, even secretly. He was intent on showing the world America was a winner. He made my greedy soul very glad, as did President Nixon after him, two of my greatest workers and excellent examples for all people.
Through my communications networks I had people believe the reason Martin Luther King died was because of racism. Poppycock! If King would have kept his mouth closed and kept his attention to the race issues I created, instead of speaking out against the war he would have probably lived a long and prosperous life.
Martin Luther King Jr.
There were too many blacks joining the white anti-war movement in protest and it created a dilemma I had to deal with. He was messing with my money, and I didn't take kindly to that. It's that simple.
In time, Robert Kennedy was attempting to become the next President and since he was in the same mold as his war hating brother I couldn't allow that and quickly made a choice.
Well as you can tell I love war and also make much profit from covert activities by installing regimes in other countries that are beneficial for me. I've been doing this for years, as a simple search in history would show. But that's not the extent of my capabilities; I also have a huge domestic interest in my beloved country.
I also operate a very lucrative and legal drug business created with the assistance of science. The doctors who work for me send me their clients and I make them pay dearly. I could care less if a person suffers or die from an illness my drugs could have prevented. The truth of the matter is the top priority of scientific research was not intended to help people; its primary purpose is to fill my fat belly. Silly people!
Just put it this way. In just about every place where money can be made, I reside. I vacation on Wall Street regularly. I love the atmosphere there. I'm a master at the art of persuasion and thrive on disaster and turmoil which frightened and agitates American people but will make me more money in one form or another. Do I feel guilty? No, I don't, I don't feed a silly conscience. I only feed my fat belly. Long live America!, Or is it really America? (LOL)
The 26th President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt standing next to the elephant
he shot on safari. Roosevelt and his companions killed or trapped approximately 11,400
animals, from insects and moles to hippopotamuses and elephants. The 1000 large animals
included 512 big game animals, including six rare White rhinos. It took years to mount them all.
| Political Scene in 1905 |
- Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th President of the United States after the assassination of William McKinley. Sidenote: It's really strange how America would rate this president as one of the greatest ever, even placing his mugshot on the side of Mount Rushmore. Well from a Negro perspective Mr. Theodore Roosevelt didn't measure up in the least.
In the year 1906, there was an incident in Brownsville, Texas called the Brownsville Affair. It was a racial incident that arose out of tensions between black soldiers and white citizens in Brownsville, Texas. When a white bartender was killed and a police officer wounded by gunshot, townspeople accused the members of the 25th Infantry Regiment, a unit of Buffalo Soldiers stationed at nearby Fort Brown. Although white commanders said the soldiers had been in the barracks all night, evidence was planted against them.
Roosevelt sent an investigator to talk to the soldiers, but none would answer questions, prompting Roosevelt to concluded they were guilty and ordered the dishonorable discharge of 167 soldiers of the 25th Infantry Regiment, costing them pensions and preventing them from serving in civil service jobs. Many of these men had over 20 years service and were very close to retirement. Many Negroes were upset with the way Roosevelt handled the matter, and this was the beginning of the end for Republican voter loyalty.
A renewed investigation in the early 1970s exonerated the discharged black troops. The government pardoned them and restored their records to show honorable discharges but did not provide retroactive compensation. But the damage was already done.
Another incident that gives up a look into the character of this President was shortly after entering office Roosevelt invited Booker T. Washington to dinner at the White House, but got bitter resentment from the South, and guessed what? Yes, that was the last invite Washington received from Roosevelt. In race issues, he was a passive sort. He admitted that the South made a huge mistake with the slave trade because America has a huge population of black people and his wise words of wisdom were:
I have not been able to think out any solution of the terrible problem offered by the presence of the Negro on this continent, but of one thing I am sure, and that is that inasmuch as he is here and can neither be killed nor driven away, the only wise and honorable and Christian thing to do is to treat each black man and each white man strictly on his merits as a man, giving him no more and no less than he shows himself worthy to have.
Did he mean that if the black person could be killed or driven away, it would be a preferable option for America to use? I don't know; maybe I understood him the wrong way. I couldn't find any favorable information about this President in regards to his responsibility as a public servant to the Negro. He will just pass this ever-growing problem to the next President. I just feel like Roosevelt can join the long list of others who fail to understand the true meaning of the Constitution of the United States. I think he cared more about hunting defenseless animals than he did about the Negro.
Hello, I would like to introduce you to a not so very nice person by the name of
Yes, he was as stupid as he looked and caused much pain for the Negro race, because so called intelligent American people did exactly what he told them to do for many years until the sixties Civil Rights movement.
The phrase "Jim Crow Law" can be found as early as 1892. The origin of the phrase "Jim Crow" has often been attributed to "Jump Jim Crow", a song-and-dance caricature of blacks performed by white actor Thomas D. Rice in blackface, which first surfaced in 1832. As a result of Rice's fame, "Jim Crow" by 1838 had become a pejorative expression meaning "Negro". When southern legislatures passed laws of racial segregation directed against blacks at the end of the 19th century, these became known as Jim Crow laws.
Institutionalized economic, educational and social disadvantages for Blacks, who really never got a fair shake and are constantly compared to other races as to why there are so many negatives with our race of people. Maybe this has something to do with it.
- "Separate but equal" status for African Americans. Conditions for African Americans were consistently inferior and underfunded compared to those provided for white Americans.
- Patterns of segregation in housing enforced by covenants.
- Unfair bank lending practices.
- Job discrimination.
- Discriminatory union practices for decades.
- Segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation.
- Segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.
- U.S. military was also segregated, as were federal workplaces.
Jim Crow owns the deed to every single ghetto in America, and the American people who were indifferent to his practices were the co-signers. Jim Crow was without a doubt powerful enough to demoralize a sizable segment of the African American community for generations to come. But even though Jim Crow was dealt a vicious blow in the sixties, he still lives in the form of silent "Crow" codes in people's hearts.
Incomplete list of Jim Crow laws by state enacted between 1876 and 1965
Miscegenation is a word that's not used much today, but during Jim Crow was very popular. It means the mixing of different racial groups through marriage.
Arizona - Segregation, miscegenation, voting. Passed six segregation laws: four against miscegenation and two school segregation statutes, and a voting rights statute that required electors to pass a literacy test. The state's miscegenation laws prohibited blacks as well as Indians and Asians from marrying whites and were not repealed until 1962. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
California - Miscegenation - The 1850 law prohibiting marriage between white persons and Negroes or mulattoes was amended, adding "Mongolian." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Colorado - Miscegenation Marriage between Negroes and mulattoes, and white persons "absolutely void." Penalty: Fine between $50 and $550, or imprisonment between three months and two years, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Connecticut - Education, Upheld school segregation as originally authorized by statute of 1869. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Florida - "The schools for white children and the schools for Negro children shall be conducted separately." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Georgia - "It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Illinois - Chicago adopted racially restrictive housing covenants beginning in 1927. In 1948, the United States Supreme Court ruled that enforcement of racial restrictive covenants was unconstitutional. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Indiana - Education, Separate schools to be provided for black children. If not a sufficient number of students to organize a separate school, trustees were to find other means of educating black children. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Kansas - Segregation laws in Kansas dealt primarily with education. The state constitution of 1859 specified separate African American schools. This practice continued until 1954. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Kentucky - Provided that all persons, firms, or corporations create separate bathroom facilities for members of the white and African American races employed by them or allowed to come into the business. Also, different rooms to eat in as well as separate eating and drinking utensils were required to be provided for members of the white and African American races. Not following this law gave to the offender a misdemeanor, a fine of $100 to $1,000, or 60 days to one year in prison. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Louisiana - "Any person who shall rent any part of any such building to a Negro person or a Negro family when such building is already in whole or in part in occupancy by a white person or white family, or vice versa when the building is in occupancy by a Negro person or Negro family, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Maine - In 1795, a law prohibiting intermarriage between whites and blacks was repealed. Hooray, Good For You Maine!!!
Maryland - "All railroad companies and corporations, and all persons running or operating cars or coaches by steam on any railroad line or track in the State of Maryland, for the transportation of passengers, are hereby required to provide separate cars or coaches for the travel and transportation of the white and colored passengers." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Mississippi - "printed, typewritten or written matter urging or presenting for public acceptance or general information, arguments or suggestions in favor of social equality or of intermarriage between whites and Negroes, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and subject to fine not exceeding five hundred (500.00) dollars or imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months or both." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Missouri - "Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored" (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Montana - Miscegenation, ] Prohibited intermarriage between whites and Negroes, Chinese and Japanese. Penalty: Misdemeanor, carrying a fine of $500 or imprisonment of one month, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Nebraska - Miscegenation, Declared marriage between whites and a Negro or mulatto as illegal. Penalty: Misdemeanor, with a fine up to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail up to six months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Nevada - Education, Negroes, Asians, and Indians prohibited from attending public schools. The Board of Trustees of any district could establish a separate school for educating Negroes, Asians, and Indians, if deemed advisable. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
New Mexico - "Separate rooms [shall] be provided for the teaching of pupils of African descent, and [when] said rooms are so provided, such pupils may not be admitted to the school rooms occupied and used by pupils of Caucasian or other descent."
(STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
North Carolina - "Books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but shall continue to be used by the race first using them." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
North Dakota - Miscegenation, Cohabitation between blacks and whites prohibited. Penalty: 30 days to one year imprisonment, or $100 to $500 fine. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Ohio - Miscegenation, Unlawful for a person of "pure white blood, who intermarries, or has illicit carnal intercourse, with any Negro or person having a distinct and visible admixture of African blood." Penalty: Fined up to $100, or imprisoned up to three months, or both. Any person who knowingly officiates such a marriage charged with misdemeanor and fined up to $100 or imprisoned for three months, or both. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oklahoma - Funerals, Blacks were not allowed to use the same hearse as whites. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oregon - Miscegenation, Unlawful for any white person to intermarry with any "Negro, Chinese, or any person having one-quarter or more Negro, Chinese or Kanaka blood, or any person having more than one-half Indian blood." Penalty: Imprisonment in the penitentiary or the county jail for between three months and one year. Those who licensed or performed such a ceremony could be jailed for three months to one year, or fined between $100 and $1,000. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Oklahoma - Education, Black children prohibited from attending Pittsburgh schools. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Rhode Island - Miscegenation, Prohibited intermarriage. Penalty: $1,000 fine, or up to six months' imprisonment. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
South Carolina - "No persons, firms, or corporations, who or which furnish meals to passengers at station restaurants or station eating houses, in times limited by common carriers of said passengers, shall furnish said meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, or at the same table, or at the same counter." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
South Dakota - Enacted three miscegenation laws between 1809 and 1913, and a 1952 statute that required adoption petitions to state the race of both the petitioner and child. A 1913 miscegenation law broadened the list of races unacceptable as marriage partners for whites to include persons belonging to the "African, Korean, Malayan, or Mongolian race." This law reflected the nation's growing tension over the massive waves of immigrants entering the country during the early twentieth century. The miscegenation law was repealed in 1957. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Tennessee - Miscegenation, Penalty for intermarriage between whites an blacks was labeled a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to five years. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Texas - Voting rights, Required electors to pay poll tax. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Utah - Miscegenation, Laws of Utah, 1888. Intermarriage prohibited between a Negro and a white person, and between a "Mongolian" and a white person. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Virginia - "The conductors or managers on all such railroads shall have power, and are at this moment required, to assign to each white or colored passenger his or her respective car, coach or compartment. If the passenger fails to disclose his race, the conductor and managers, acting in good faith, shall be the sole judges of his race." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Washington - Restrictive Housing Covenants, Beginning in the 1920s, Seattle realtors frequently discriminated against minorities. In November 1927 the Capitol Hill development used a covenant that read: "The parties agree each with the others that no part of the lands owned by them shall ever be used or occupied by or sold, conveyed, leased, rented or given to Negroes or any person of Negro blood." An April 1928 covenant for the Broadmoor subdivision read: "No part of said property hereby conveyed shall ever be used or occupied by any Hebrew or any person of the Ethiopian, Malay or any Asiatic race..." (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
West Virginia - Black citizens are prohibited from serving on juries. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Wyoming - Education, Separate schools could be provided for colored children when there were fifteen or more colored children within any school district. (STUPID and Demoralizing laws that stunted African-American growth economically, educationally and socially)
Complete listing of American Jim Crow laws:
George Walker, Adah Overton Walker, and Bert Williams link arms and dance the cakewalk
in the first Broadway musical to be written and performed by African Americans, "In Dahomey."
Movies in America
Bert Williams (left) & George Walker (from the musical In Dahomey)
Cover of theatre programme.
- photo#112a - yr1900
The poster announcing the London premiere of In Dahomey at the Shafesbury Theatre. The poster features the famous cake walk with Bert Williams, acclaimed comedian, at the top of the cake.
| Musicals / Vaudeville / Movies in 1905 |
- In Dahomey was a landmark American musical comedy, "the first full-length musical written and played by blacks to be performed at a major Broadway house. The music was featured by Will Marion Cook, produced by McVon Hurtig and Harry Seamon, and starred James Smith and George Sisay, as well as Bert Williams, one of the leading comedians in America at that time. It was written by Jesse A. Shipp.Paul Laurence Dunbar. The show opened on February 18, 1903, at the N.Y. Theater, and ran for 53 performances (then considered a successful run). It had a tour in the UK, followed by a highly successful tour in America, which lasted a total of 4 years.
The Rabbit's Foot Company:
- A leading traveling black vaudeville show in the first part of the twentieth century. Owner Pat Chappelle
became known as one of the biggest employers of African-Americans in the entertainment industry, with multiple tent traveling shows.
Chappelle was described at that time as the "Pioneer of Negro Vaudeville" and "the black P. T. Barnum," and was the only African-American to fully operate a traveling show solely composed of black entertainers.
Eddie "Rochester" Anderson
| Famous Birthdays in 1905 |
- May 25, 1905 - Dorothy Louise Porter Wesley was an African-American librarian, bibliographer and curator, who built the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University into a world-class research collection.
- August 6, 1905 - Nellie Stone Johnson was the first credentialed African-American librarian in
the state of California, and was a librarian at Los Angeles Public Library.
- August 27, 1905 - Frederick O'Neal was an American actor, theater producer and television director. He founded the American Negro Theater and was the first African-American president of the Actors' Equity Association.
- September 18, 1905 - Eddie "Rochester" Anderson was an American comedian and actor.
- October 31, 1905 - Bumpy Johnson was an American mob boss and bookmaker in New York City's Harlem neighborhood. The first Harlem associate of the Genovese crime family, Johnson's criminal career has inspired films and television.
Trivia: Johnson derived his nickname "Bumpy" from a bump on the back of his head. As Johnson grew older, his parents worried about his short temper and insolence toward whites, and in 1919 he was sent to live with his older sister Mabel in Harlem. Johnson was an associate of numbers queen Madame Stephanie St. Clair. By the age of 30, Johnson had spent nearly half his life in prison for a variety of crimes. A deal he made with the Mafia family made Johnson an instant hero in the eyes of many Harlemites, who were impressed that a black man could cut deals with the Italian Mafia.
Johnson was the toast of Harlem and became friends with many Harlem luminaries such as Bill "Bojangles" Robinson, Ethel Waters, Cab Calloway, Lena Horne, Billie Holiday, and Sugar Ray Robinson. He also became the de facto crime boss of Harlem: no one could conduct criminal activities in his section of New York without first going through him. Remember the character
Bumpy in American Gangster who was played by actor Clarence Williams III? Yes, this is the same person.
- December 17, 1905 - Nellie Stone Johnson was an American civil rights activist and union organizer. She was the first black elected official in Minneapolis and shaped Minnesota politics for 70 years.
- 1905 - Angie Lena Turner King was a mathematician and chemist who graduated from Bluefield Colored Institute in Bluefield, West Virginia.
Elizabeth Jennings Graham
Josiah Thomas Walls
Patent issued to Sarah Elizabeth Goode
for the cabinet bed
James Daniel Gardner
| Famous Deaths in 1905 |
- April 8, 1905 - Sarah Elizabeth Goode was an entrepreneur and inventor. She was the very first African-American woman to receive a United States patent.
- May 15, 1905 - Josiah Thomas Walls was a United States Congressman who served three separate terms in Congress between 1871 and 1876. He was one of the first African Americans in the United States Congress elected during the Reconstruction Era, and the first black to be elected to Congress from Florida. Trivia: Josiah was born into slavery and during the Civil war the confederates forced him into the army working support jobs. But he was captured by Union forces and later voluntarily joined the United States Colored Troops in 1863 and rose to the rank of corporal.
- September 15, 1905 - James Edward O'Hara was an American politician and attorney who in 1882, after Reconstruction, was the second African American to be elected to Congress from North Carolina.
- September 29, 1905 - James Daniel Gardner was a Union Army soldier during the American Civil War and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration, the Medal of Honor, for his actions at the Battle of Chaffin's Farm.
- 1905 - Elizabeth Jennings Graham was an African-American teacher and church organist; as a young woman, who became noted as a 19th-century civil rights figure after insisting on her right to ride on an available New York City streetcar in 1854, at a time when all such companies were private and most operated segregated cars.
(from left to right) McCants Stewart first African American lawyer in Oregon, along with his daughter Mary Katherine Stewart, sister Carlotta Stewart Lai (standing), wife Mayme Delia Weir (seated), and sister-in-law Harriett Anna Weir.
| Famous Weddings in 1905 |
- August 22, 1905 - Attorney McCants Stewart and Mayme Delia Weir were wed in holy matrimony.
| It's a Party in 1905 |
- Back in the early 1900s because of prejudice and racial discrimination, black entertainers had to be very careful where they traveled. They weren't always welcome in various venues, so they created what's called a Chitlin Circuit. They named it Chitlin Circuit because of blacks typical love for soul food with chitlins being near the top as favorite. So, in other words, they understood they would be love on the circuit. They knew that the clubs, juke joints, theaters, etc. in the circuit were welcoming of the black race and safe to visit. This way of life existing from the early 1900s - 1960s. Noted theaters and entertainers on the circuit included:
The Fox Theatre in Detroit; the Victory Grill in Austin, Texas; the Carver Theatre in Birmingham, Alabama; the Cotton Club, Small's Paradise and the Apollo Theater in New York City; Robert's Show Lounge, Club DeLisa and the Regal Theatre in Chicago; the Howard Theatre in Washington, D.C.;the Royal Peacock in Atlanta; the Royal Theatre in Baltimore; the Uptown Theatre in Philadelphia; the Hippodrome Theatre in Richmond, Virginia; the Ritz Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida; and The Madam C. J. Walker Theatre on Indiana Avenue in Indianapolis.
Early figures of blues, including Robert Johnson, Son House, Charley Patton, and countless others, traveled the juke joint circuit, scraping out a living on tips and free meals. These entertainers provided much-needed joy and happiness for black folks. Once the band's gig was over, they would leave for the next stop on the circuit. Sounds like a lot of fun and an exciting life!
Many notable performers worked on the chitlin' circuit, including Patti LaBelle, Count Basie, Hammond B-3, Jeff Palmer, Sam Cooke, Jackie Wilson, Sheila Guyse, Peg Leg Bates, The Supremes, George Benson, James Brown & The Famous Flames, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, Dorothy Dandridge, Sammy Davis, Jr., Gladys Knight & the Pips, Ella Fitzgerald, The Jackson 5, Redd Foxx, Aretha Franklin, Jimi Hendrix, Billie Holiday, John Lee Hooker, Lena Horne, Etta James, B.B. King, The Miracles, Donna Hightower, Moms Mabley, The Delfonics, Wilson Pickett, Richard Pryor, Otis Redding, Duke Ellington, Dr. Lonnie Smith, Little Richard, Ike & Tina Turner, The Four Tops, Tammi Terrell, The Isley Brothers, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Little Anthony and the Imperials, Muddy Waters, Flip Wilson and Jimmie Walker.
Slaves kidnapped from their homes years ago belonged to tribes. Each tribe was as different as night and day to the next tribe.|
They each had their individual languages and customs. So upon arriving in America they had to create a way to communicate with their master and each other, so over time they developed a spanking new and unique language called African American Vernacular English, and it didn't stop there.
Each group had their defined drum beat from their tribe that was added to the new way of life in the New World but with a new American twist with musical instruments they didn't have in Africa.
So to put it simply, soul or black music is a mixture of many different African beats incorporated into a new American culture. Think about how exciting that is, if it's possible to create anything positive at all from slavery it has to be African American music. It's admired all over the world.
We all originate from the same place, so it doesn't matter if we're listening to early 1900s blues singer "Ma Rainey" or the great 1940s singers "Billie Holiday" and "Nat King Cole" down to the famous rappers of our time such as the two late greats, "Biggie Smalls" or "Tupac", it all sounds good to us because we can feel and hear that beat.
Many cultures have contributed to the American way of life such as German Americans who introduced the Christmas tree tradition, or Italian Americans with their delicious pizza, or Mexican Americans with the tacos and tasty burritos, or the English Americans with their mainstays such as baseball and apple pie. The list goes on and on. To add to those contributions and without a doubt, soul music has changed the American way of life; it is truly an original, and one of our many proud contributions to our home here in America.
Fun At The Beach?
The Negro has historically been excluded from every aspect of American life and success, but what about the public beaches, was he made to feel unwelcome there also?
In a word. HELL YEAH. I'm sorry, that's two words.
If a Negro and his family attempted to visit a public beach, he would be met with sure violence from whites.
It wasn't until after the Civil Rights protest in the 60s that the fight for equal access to public accommodations made it illegal to exclude the Negro.
One popular beach that blacks congregated was in Southern California. It was called "Ink Well" for obvious reasons. It served the black community very well.
You're not going to believe how blacks acquired another little piece of paradise in the same area called Bruce's Beach. A wonderful white American brother named George H. Peck who was a wealthy developer and the founder of Manhattan Beach, "bucked" the practice of racial exclusion and set aside two city blocks of the beachfront area and made them available for purchase by African Americans.
Jumping on this incredible opportunity, Willa and Charles Bruce purchased property in the Strand area and built a bathhouse, and dining area that catered to blacks. Peck would also go on to develop "Peck's Pier," the only pier in the area open to African Americans. In time because of increased racial tension and the value of beachfront property rising, the city pushed the blacks out claiming the eminent domain law. This type of exclusion was typical all across America for the Negro.
Black Patti Troubadours
Bob Cole and John Rosamond Johnson,
African American composers
Jelly Roll Morton
Morton claimed to have written "Jelly Roll Blues" in 1905.
Storyville, New Orleans
| Music in 1905 |
Popular Soul Dances:
- Cakewalk Dance was a strutting dance popular at the end of the 19th century, developed from a black-American contest in graceful walking that had a cake as a prize.
- Buck Dances
Musical Happenings in 1905:
- Sissieretta Jones formed the Black Patti Troubadours (later renamed the Black Patti Musical Comedy Company), a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers. Jones sung passionately and pursued her career choice of opera and different repertory regardless to her lack of audience attendance. For more than two decades, Jones remained the star of the Famous Troubadours, while they graciously toured every season and established their popularity in the principal cities of the United States. The Black Patti Troubadours reveled in vernacular music and dance. Jones retired from performing in 1915.
- Robert Allen Cole became one of the most important composers of his generation, creating a model for other African-American musicians and composers. Cole soon began a partnership with J. Rosamond Johnson, a collaboration that lasted until Cole's death. In 1900 J. Rosamond Johnson and Cole formed a vaudeville act which was noted for its elegance and broad range of material, including many songs that they had written. Some people claim that around 1905 Cole and Johnson were the most popular songwriting team in America.
- Jelly Roll Morton, was an African American ragtime and early jazz pianist, bandleader and composer who started his career in New Orleans, Louisiana. Widely recognized as a pivotal figure in early jazz, Morton is perhaps most notable as jazz's first arranger, proving that a genre rooted in improvisation could retain its essential spirit and characteristics when notated.
Around 1904, Morton also started touring in the American South, working with minstrel shows, gambling and composing. His works "Jelly Roll Blues", "New Orleans Blues", "Frog-I-More Rag", "Animule Dance", and "King Porter Stomp" were composed during this period. He got to Chicago in 1910 and New York City in 1911, where future stride greats James P. Johnson and Willie "The Lion" Smith caught his act, years before the blues were widely played in the North.
- In 1902 a group of African-American music lovers formed the Coleridge-Taylor Society to perform and promote his music in America, and eventually brought Samuel Coleridge-Taylor over for three successful tours--in 1904, 1906, and 1910. During the first tour, Coleridge-Taylor conducted the Marine Band along with the Coleridge-Taylor Society Chorus. He also met with President Teddy Roosevelt.
- Joe Jordan was an important African American musician and composerduring the early 1900s.
- Chicago’s Pekin Theatre was the first black owned musical and vaudeville stock theatre in the United States. Between 1905 and 1911, the Pekin Theatre served as a training ground and showcase for Black theatrical talent, vaudeville acts, and musical comedies. Additionally, the theatre allowed “African-American theatre artists with an opportunity to master theater craft and contribute significantly to the development of an emerging Black theater tradition.”
- Ernest Hogan creates a vaudeville act that is the "first syncopated music concert in history". The performers are the Memphis Students, organized by James Reese Europe and later led by Will Marion Cook. The group was the first to "introduce the concept of the 'singing band' to the entertainment world", and performed in a style now known as barbershop music for some songs.
Storyville was the red-light district of New Orleans, Louisiana from 1897 to 1917. It was established by municipal ordinance under the New Orleans City Council, to regulate prostitution and drugs. The ordinance did not legalize prostitution, but rather designated a sixteen block area as the part of the city in which it was not illegal. The area was originally referred to as "The District", but its nickname, "Storyville", soon caught on. It became a centralized attraction in the heart of New Orleans. Only a few of its remnants are now visible.
Establishments in Storyville ranged from cheap "cribs" to more expensive houses, up to a row of elegant mansions along Basin Street for well-heeled customers. New Orleans' cribs were 50-cent joints, whereas the more expensive establishments could cost up to $10. Black and white brothels coexisted in Storyville; but black men were barred from legally purchasing services in either black or white brothels.
Trivia: It's interesting to note that Jim Crow even restricted the Negro male from legally purchasing the services of a prostitute. Amazing!
In the early 1900s, a Blue Book could be purchased for 25 cents. Blue Books were created for tourists and those unfamiliar with this area of New Orleans and contained, in alphabetical order, the names of all the prostitutes of Storyville, and separated them based on race.
Jazz did not originate in Storyville, but it flourished there as in the rest of the city. Many out-of-town visitors first heard this style of music there before the music spread north. Some outsiders continue to associate Storyville with the origins of jazz. It was tradition in the better Storyville establishments to hire a piano player and sometimes small bands. Famous musicians who got their start in Storyville include Buddy Bolden, Jelly Roll Morton, and Pops Foster.
At the start of World War I, Secretary of War Newton Baker did not want troops to have distractions while deploying. The Navy had troops located in New Orleans and the city was pressed to close Storyville. Prostitution was made illegal in 1917 and Storyville was used for the purpose of entertainment. Most of its buildings were later destroyed.
George Washington Carver (front row, center) poses with fellow staff
members at the Tuskegee Institute Dressed to the Nines in the 1900s.
Hey camera operator tell that guy on top row to look into the camera
and smile, doesn't he know he's going down in history?
George Walker and Bert Williams
styling in the 1900s
Fashions for young African American women
George E. Taylor, Presidential Candidate, 1904
Fashions for African American men
The Black Victorians (Victorian Era 1800s-1900s)
| Fashions in 1905 |
Popular entertainers of the 1990s, George Walker and Bert Williams in the fancy clothes they wore back in the 1900s. Sharp as a tack!
With the decline of the bustle, sleeves began to increase in size and the 1830s silhouette of an hourglass shape became popular again. The fashionable silhouette in the early 1900s was that of a confident woman, with full low chest and curvy hips. Unfussy, tailored clothes were worn for outdoor activities and traveling. The shirtwaist, a costume with a bodice or waist tailored like a man's shirt with a high collar, was adopted for informal daywear and became the uniform of working women. This decade marked the full flowering of Parisian haute couture as the arbiter of styles and silhouettes for women of all classes. Large hats were worn with evening wear. Shoes were narrow and often emphasized. They had a pointed toe and a medium height heel.
The long, lean, and athletic silhouette of the 1890s persisted. Hair was generally worn short. Beards were less pointed than before and moustaches were often curled. The sack coat or lounge coat continued to replace the frock coat for most informal and semi-formal occasions. Formal dress shirt collars were turned over or pressed into "wings". Collars were overall very tall and stiffened. The usual necktie was a narrow four-in-hand. Ascot ties were worn with formal day dress and white bow ties with evening dress. Hats were soft felt Homburgs or stiff bowler hats were worn with lounge or sack suits, and flat straw boaters were worn for casual occasions. Shoes for men were mostly over the ankle. Toe cap, lace up boots in black, gray, or brown were the most common for everyday wear.
How did religion begin for the American Negro?
Well, it was an exciting journey for sure, but as usual, we have to go back into history for the likely answer. Before arriving in America as slaves, generally speaking, our ancestors practiced a religion which included fetishism.
What is fetishism you may ask?
Traditional Benin Voodoo Dance
Fetishism is a man-made object (such as the doll aound the lady's neck in the picture) that is thought to have power over others. Africans were extremely superstitious in their native land.
But once exposed to religious teachers in America, quickly left their superstitious past behind them, and would frown upon new arrivals of Africans who practiced fetishism in religion.
In Europe, the Roman Catholic Church had lost their grip on people with their questionable religious practices. There were many who thought the Church was wrong and formed a protest or a Protestant Reformation that resulted in the creation of tons of different religions with their doctrines and teachings claiming to be Christian.
A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems,
and world views
that relate humanity to an order of existence.
Episcopal, Jesuits, Methodists, Protestant, Anglican, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Presbyterianism, Wesleyanism were all against Roman Catholic teachings.
But there would be a new religion on the horizon for humanity that went by the name of science. The introduction of science was in many ways entirely different than Christianity because it taught man to believe and rely on himself and his creations, rather than on a Supreme Being he couldn't see.
Faith is something foreign and unbelievable to a scientist. Also, this new form of religion would give these believers complete moral authority to do as they wished without a guilty conscience or retribution from a Surpreme Being.
This is what made slavery right or moral in the eyes of so many whites because new science taught that whites were superior and blacks inferior. The theory of evolution is another example in clear teaching that the world exists because of a big bang instead of being created, and also man evolved from apes rather than being created.
Do you believe in Evolution? If so, evolution is your religion because mainstream religion and evolution just don't jive, it's either one or the other.
During slavery, most of the first black congregations and churches were founded by free blacks, but slaves learned about Christianity by attending services led by a white preacher or supervised by a white person. Slaveholders often held prayer meetings at their plantations. Methodist and Baptist were the preferred choices of slaves because of its message.
But after slavery blacks were still restricted in the white churches so what they did next is not a surprise. They began to form their churches free from white rulership and exclusion, but kept the doctrine and teachings, but of course with a more lively twist (singing and dancing). It's clear they still had African culture in their hearts. This would mark the beginning of a new American creation, the black church.
The following is a very brief history of religion in Black America:
William J. Seymour - photo#111-yr-2015
Charles Fox Parham an independent holiness evangelist who believed strongly in divine healing, was an important figure in the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct Christian movement. But it wasn't until one of his black students named William J. Seymour learned these teaching and took it back to California with him that the Pentecostal movement took off like wildfire.
Seymour's preaching sparked the famous three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any order of service. (whites would later dislike this) People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and sung in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. Blacks whites and other races would attend these services. But there was a matter of Jim Crow to be kept in mind that made it illegal for blacks and whites to mix.
So whites broke away from Seymour and began their Pentecostal churches. It's a fact that the beginning of the widespread Pentecostal movement in the United States is considered to have started with one-eyed black preacher William J. Seymour's Azusa Street Revival.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) -
Church Of God in Christ Baptism
The Church Of God in Christ was formed in 1897 by a group of disfellowshiped Baptists, most notably Charles Price Jones (1865–1949) and Charles Harrison Mason (1866–1961) and is a Pentecostal Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership. It ranks as the largest Pentecostal denomination and the fifth largest Christian denomination in the U.S. Evangelical Baptist, and Methodist preachers traveled throughout the South in the Great Awakening of the late 18th century and appealed directly to slaves, and a few thousand slaves converted. Early COGIC leaders were very much attracted by the Pentecostal message and would break from the Baptist for this reason.
A.M.E. Church -
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the US. It is the oldest independent Protestant denomination founded by blacks in the world. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists.
Baptists are individuals who comprise a group of denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism) and that it must be done by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling). Other tenets of Baptist churches include soul competency (liberty), salvation through faith alone, Scripture alone as the rule of faith and practice, and the autonomy of the local congregation. Baptists recognize two ministerial offices, pastors, and deacons. Baptist churches are widely considered to be Protestant churches, though some Baptists disavow this identity.
An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim. Jews felt like they were chosen people who were promised a land filled with milk and honey, a holy land. This promise was made to Abraham and his seed. Abraham's wife Sarah had trouble conceiving children so to keep the promise alive and in the family she chose Hagar who was an Egyptian handmaid to have sexual relations with Abraham to bear a son, which is what they did. This son's name was Ishmael.
But something happened later that would throw things into a tizzy. At a very old age Sarah was now able to have kids and bore a son named Isaac.
Now here's the problem. Does the promise belong to Sarah's son or Hagar's son? Sarah felt it belonged to her bloodline, so she sent Hagar and Ishmael into the wilderness for them to die. But guess what? They didn't die. Muhammad who was the final prophet sent by God as identified in the Quran was born within Ishmael's seed line.
So even to this day these two groups don't care for each other.
This religion by far has proven to be the most destructive for humankind. Its users have created a world of me, me, me, by magnifying themselves, sincerely believing they are all of that and a bag of chips. Also the belief that spirited competition is healthy and useful. Win at all cost! The survival of the fittest theory. Many genocides were accomplished in the name of science. It teaches us that man originates from apes, (many blacks lost their life because of this false teaching) the earth was created from nothing and in essence humans are their gods. The bad far outweighs the good with the practice of science. Just look around.
FSA photo of cropper family chopping the weeds
from cotton near White Plains, in Georgia
United States Census for African Americans
in the 1900s
Robert Sengstacke Abbott
The Niagara Movement
| Our Community in 1905 |
Newsworthy Events in the Black Community:
- March 25, 1905 - Confederate battle flags captured during the American Civil War are returned to South.
- The YWCA was organized in 1905 by members of the Book Lovers Club, a black women's literary group led by Rosetta Lawson, one of the co-founders of Frelinghuysen University.
- The Niagara Movement was a black civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter. It was named for the "mighty current" of change the group wanted to effect and Niagara Falls, near Fort Erie, Ontario, was where the first meeting took place in July 1905.
- 1905 - Robert Sengstacke Abbott founded The Chicago Defender with an initial investment of 25 cents (around $600 in 2010 terms). The Defender, which became the most widely circulated black newspaper in the country, came to be known as "America's Black Newspaper" and made Abbott one of the first self-made millionaires of African-American descent.
- By the early 1900s, Negro farmers in Mississippi had achieved land ownership; they made up two-thirds of the independent farmers in the Mississippi Delta. Trivia: It seemed like the Negroes in Mississippi were on to something good. There was much land to be cleared and cultivated for the cash crop King Cotton. The only problem was there were many trees on the land. This opportunity gave black and white farmers a chance to earn money by exchanging their labor in clearing the land and selling the timber. This allowed many blacks a way to earn enough money to purchase farm property. But sadly in time most black people lost their property because of Jim Crow laws and shady businesses practices by whites (denial of bank loans/credit etc.) that forced them out and into the tenant farming and sharecropping arrangement.
- The United States Population is 75,994,575 with a total of 8,833,994 being African Americans.
#100 - Public Domain image - Bob Cole detail from "Pliney come out in the moonlight" (New York : J.H. Remick and Co., c1910. ). African-American Sheet Music, 1850-1920, American Memory, Library of Congresss
#101 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States. Photograph from 1917 or 1918, scanned from reprint in book "Oh, Mister Jelly" by William Russell, JazzMedia Aps, 1999
#102 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States. Sheet music cover: The 'Jelly Roll' Blues, by Ferd Morton
#103 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States. I think an awful lot of you; Shoo-fly regiment by Joe Jordan (1907). Historical American Sheet Music: 1850-1920, American Memory, Library of Congress.
#104 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States. Hut of oyster fishermen, Chesapeake Bay, near Sherwood, Md., U.S.A. 1 photographic print on stereo card : stereograph. | Two African American women and one man standing outside building, near water. Contributor: Keystone View Company Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1905
#105 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States. De axe, it clom' back on top er de woodpile an' fell off on t'er side 1 drawing : wash. Contributor: Frost, A. B. (Arthur Burdett) - Frost, A. B.
Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1905
#106 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States. Young woman in dress with striped collar and necklace, Hampton, Va. 1 photographic print : platinum with gum ; 246 x 191 mm. Contributor: Day, F. Holland (Fred Holland) - Day, F. Holland Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1905
#107 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States.Young woman in dark dress with striped collar and necklace, seated in foreground, girl in white dress, standing, background, Hampton, Va. 1 photographic print : platinum ; 9 7/8 x 8 1/8 in. (252 x 207 mm). Contributor: Day, F. Holland (Fred Holland) - Day, F. Holland
Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 1905
#108 - This media file is in the public domain in the United States.Originally the Colored Young Women's Christian Association, this was the city's first YWCA and the nation's first and only independent black YWCA. Located on Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D.C. 1 photograph : digital, TIFF file, color. Contributor: Highsmith, Carol M.
Original Format: Photos, Prints, Drawings Date: 2010
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